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Minorities At Risk Project: Home    

Chronology for Tuareg in Mali

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Date(s) Item
Jun 1960 French Sudan is granted independence from France and along with Senegal, become the Federation of Mali.
Aug 1960 The Federation of Mali is dissolved thus, The Republic of Mali and Senegal are two separate nations.
1968 Mali now ruled by a Military Committee for National Liberation with an executive President (currently Gen. Moussa Traor'e).
Sep 22, 1988 Seventy-eight political prisoners were freed to mark the 28th anniversary of Mali independence. Head of State, Traor'e, used the occasion to announce the closure of the notorious Taoudenni special rehabilitation center where very few prisoners, who were forced to work in salt mines, survived the harsh conditions.
Feb 5, 1989 The Deputy Secretary-General of the UDPM (Union democratique du peuple malien, the only legal political group) died in the Soviet Union.
Jun 8, 1989 Head of State, Moussa Traor'e, replaced seven ministers and the Telecommunications portfolio, previously attached to the Ministry of Transport and Tourism, was added to the Information Ministry. No official explanation given.
Apr 1990 The ruling Mali People's Democratic Union (UDPM) held a series of conferences on the country's political system. [I suspect that they discussed the introduction of a multiparty system]
Jun 28 - 29, 1990 Malian officials accused Tuaregs for an attack at Menaka, in which some 20 people died.
Jul 20, 1990 A state of emergency was declared by Malian officials in response to growing Tuareg attacks on administrative posts.
Aug 1990 The UDPM party executive decided to defer any further discussion of the national political system until the next congress in March 1991. Responding to charges from France and the EU concerning proper treatment of the Tuareg, Head of State Traor'e stated that the Malian army had "mastered" the Tuareg situation.
Aug 1 - Dec 31, 1990 Newly formed opposition groups, the central trade union, professional organizations, students, religious bodies and even individual members within the UDPM sought to increase pressure on the government to introduce political reforms. Two demonstrations in support of multiparty democracy had been held on Dec. 10 and Dec. 31. These measures were a result of the UDPM party executive deferment of discussions concerning the national political system until March 1991. He cited as his reason, that political reform could not be contemplated while the rebellion of the Tuareg in the north continued to pose a threat to national security.
Sep 1990 Amnesty International accused the Malian government of holding Tuaregs on political and ideological grounds, some even on ethnic grounds. It asked the Malian government to either charge the Tuaregs or release them. Amnesty also said 29 Tuaregs were executed in August without trial. Mali's Minister-Delegate for Defense, Gen. Mamadou Coulibaly, denied the accusations.
Sep 3 - 4, 1990 Near Bouressa, Tuareg tribesmen killed 200 soldiers for the loss of 20 of their own. (The Economist, October 13, 1990)
Jan 6, 1991 The Malian government signed a peace agreement with Tuareg rebels, whose uprising began with raids on police stations in June 1990. The Algerian mediated agreement was signed by the Malian ambassador in Algeria, Sinally Coulibaly, and Iyad Ag Ghali, the leader of the Popular Front for the Liberation of the Azawad (PFLA), the main group representing Tuareg interests. The peace agreement called for (i) an immediate cease fire; (ii) the lifting of the state of emergency in Gao and Timbuktu and the withdrawal of army troops from those areas; (iii) an amnesty granted to all Tuareg political prisoners; (iv) internal autonomy for the Adrar region (i.e. Gao and Timbuktu); and (v) additional state funds allocated for development of the region.
Jan 8, 1991 President Moussa Traor'e relinquished his post as Minister of National Defence and entrusted the position to Brig.-Gen. Mamadou Coulibaly, hitherto Minister-Delegate for National Defence. Many other changes in the Council of Ministers were made as well.
Jan 21, 1991 In the worst civil unrest since independence, rioting broke out in Bamako, the capital, after police banned two anti-government demonstrations. Four people were killed and many injured. The disturbances continued on the 22nd.
Jan 31, 1991 The Malian government stated that all but 34 of the 232 people arrested in connection with the civil unrest on the 21st and 22nd, had been released.
Feb 19, 1991 The Political Secretary of the ruling UDPM party spoke in a broadcast interview in support of a change to a multiparty democracy. It was reported that the UDPM congress set for March 28-31 would discuss the issue.
Feb 21, 1991 A number of pro-democracy and student organizations held a lengthy meeting with Gen. Sekou Ly, the new Interior Minister, to discuss the riotous, anti-government atmosphere that began with riots in January and has carried over into February.
Mar 1991 The intensifying pressure for reform throughout January and February led to bloody rioting and repression in March leaving at least 150 civilians dead.
Mar 2, 1991 Malian ruler, Traor'e was quoted as saying multiparty democracy would be discussed by his ruling UDPM party at its congress on March 28.
Mar 3, 1991 Tens of thousands of people held a peaceful demonstration in Bamako, in support of a multiparty system. Police dispersed the crowds with teargas, and tanks were stationed in the city. The marches were organized by five associations: the Alliance for Democracy in Mali (ADEMA), the National Committee for Democratic Association Initiative (CNID), the Free and Democratic Youth (JLD), the Youth Association for Democracy and Progress (AJDP), and the Association of Young Graduates Initiating and Seeking Employment (ADIDE).
Mar 17, 1991 Marching crowds took to the streets to mark the anniversary of the alleged 1980 tortuous death of a student leader, Abdoul Darim Camara.
Mar 22 - 23, 1991 Demonstrations in Bamako turned into riots and the army opened fire. Radiodiffusion-Television Malienne reported 27 deaths but Agence France-Presse put the figure at "more than 80". Head of State, Traor'e, appealed for calm and announced an overnight curfew. Opposition groups met on the 23rd and demanded the Presidents resignation.
Mar 24, 1991 Army troops set ablaze a shopping center where demonstrators had taken refuge, killing 65. Several thousand people demonstrated in the streets of Bamako, and opposition groups said 148 had been killed and hundreds wounded in the last three days. Independent reports said that at least 170 had died. Head of State, Traor'e refused to resign but told opposition leaders that he would call early elections. Trade union leader, Bakary Karambo, and leading human rights activist, Demba Diallo, called for an indefinite, national strike until the UDPN gave up power. Traor'e later ordered the lifting of the state of emergency and the curfew.
Mar 26 - 27, 1991 Malian President Moussa Traor'e and his wife were arrested by soldiers while trying to flee the country. Traore's government was dissolved and a 17 member National Reconciliation Council (CRN) formed under the chairmanship of Lt.-Col. Amadou Toumani Toure. Toure said multiparty democracy was "a priority" and would be achieved "as soon as possible". Celebrations that followed the events turned to rioting and several unpopular officials were reportedly lynched. The curfew and state of emergency were reimposed. Hospital sources reported 40 deaths on March 26 and 19 deaths on March 27.
Mar 30, 1991 The CRN announced that it had formed a coalition with the Coordinating Committee of Democratic Associations and Organizations (CCAOD). Together they announced the formation of the Transition Committee for the Salvation of the People (CTSP). The CTSP announced that free elections would be held before Jan. 1, 1992, and that the army would return to barracks on 20 January. A constitutional conference was to be convened within three months. The CTSP would be chaired by Lt.-Col. Amadou Toumani Toure, leader of the March 26 coup. It would be comprised of 10 military members and 15 civilian members.
Apr 2, 1991 Soumana Sacko was appointed as the new Prime Minister.
Apr 4, 1991 Prime Minister Sacko announced the formation of his government which consisted of many unknown technocrats, 2 women, several former political prisoners, and 5 military officers.
Apr 28, 1991 Several thousand supporters of current Head of State, Lt.-Col. Amadou Toumani Toure marched through the streets demanding the arrests of former leaders. Toure responded by arresting four former army generals. In the past several days violent demonstrations between students and police injured over 47 people in Bamako. Unrest was also reported in Gao, Sevare and Mopti. There were also reports of clashes between black Africans and Arabs, and between Tuareg insurgents and security forces, amid reports of continuing tension in the Timbuktu, Gao, Sevare and Mopti areas.
May 1991 There were reports that the military summarily executed at least 36 Tuaregs in northern Mali. The Tuareg situation had become a source of growing concern to the government and international human rights organizations.
Jun 1991 Head of State, Toure, announced the appointment of a commission to inquire into allegations that the army had summarily executed at least 36 Tuaregs in northern Mali in May. Amnesty International had called for a full investigation of the incident, thought to have been a reprisal for recent attacks by the rebel PFLA group, which marked the collapse of a peace agreement signed in January 1991.
Jun 6, 1991 Former Head of State Traor'e was led into court to face charges of murder in the deaths of demonstrators shortly before his overthrow. The case was deferred to an unspecified date.
Jul 1, 1991 Amnesty International reported that reprisals, by government forces for Tuareg attacks, had continued against the civilian population, at least 50 of whom died in the past two months.
Jul 15, 1991 The transitional government announced that it had foiled an attempted coup on 14 July. The foiled coup was led by former Minister of Territorial Administration Maj. Lamine Diabira and eight officers at the Kati army base. Traor'e had been held at that base prior to the alleged coup attempt.
Jul 23, 1991 Visiting Gao during a tour of the north, Head of State, Toure, called on Tuaregs to lay down their arms and to hold talks with the government.
Jul 24, 1991 A Tuareg attack killed several people in Tonka in the Timbuktu region.
Jul 31, 1991 The first day of the National Conference on Mali's political structure was attended by more that 1,000 delegates from 42 political parties and 100 organizations. The conference, called by the transitional government debated the new draft constitution.
Nov 9, 1991 Malian Head of State, Toure, delayed the conference on the Tuareg from Nov. 15 to Dec. 27. He stated the delay would give the rebels ample time to assure good representation to make credible commitments at the conference. The postponement of the conference was cited as the reason to also extend the rule of the transition government.
Dec 16 - 18, 1991 A conference scheduled for December 27 was held on 16 December and agreements, in principle, were reached between the Tuaregs and the Government. All attacks were to be ceased; the establishment of an independent commission to examine the "violent acts and losses" suffered in the fighting; and the release of all detainees. The discussions are to be continued on January 16 in Algeria.
Jan 12, 1992 Popular approval was given to a new Constitution which established a multiparty system.
Jan 19, 1992 The first multiparty, municipal elections ever to be held in Mali resulted in a low voter turnout (35%). The Alliance for Democracy in Mali (ADEMA) won the most votes.
Jan 22 - 24, 1992 Members of the government and the Unified Movements and Fronts of Azawad (MFUA), representing the Tuaregs, met in Algiers and agreed on a truce, an exchange of prisoners, and the continuation of negotiations. The 30-day truce would be renewable and would begin on February 8. An independent commission of inquiry would be established in Mopti on Feb. 19, and talks would continue in Algeria on Feb. 15.
Jan 26, 1992 The Minister of Territorial Administration, Lt-Col. Birama Sire Traore, announced the postponement of legislative elections citing as reason, " to ensure total openness and the necessary credibility for a genuine democracy". He did not give new dates. The move won the support of several opposition parties including ADEMA.
Feb 4, 1992 The transitional government postponed, once again, the first multiparty legislative and presidential elections.
Feb 10 - 23, 1992 Political parties that were to have contested for elections vowed not to take part in the legislative elections already postponed twice to Feb. 23. They called for the cancellation of the new timetable, declaring that the conditions for "reliable and open" elections could not be met by February 23.
Apr 11, 1992 The government and MFUA signed a peace agreement.
Apr 13, 1992 The government and MFUA, representing the Tuareg rebels, held a ceremony marking the exchange of prisoners in Gao.
Apr 25, 1992 A committee to monitor the implementation of the pact between he Tuareg and the government was established.
Apr 26, 1992 Alpha Oumar Konare, leader of the ADEMA, was elected President in the second round of voting, winning 69% of the vote.
May 15, 1992 Tuaregs killed four in Gossi. In retribution, the local police and administrative officials entered a Norwegian run humanitarian center (church) and executed two Tuaregs and abducted five. One of the two executed was reportedly a family member of the Minister of Tourism and Health.
May 20, 1992 After a meeting between the government and the MFUA, both parties declared that the attack on Tuaregs that occurred earlier this month was the work of "unscrupulous and lawless" people. The meeting was called after the MPA accused the government of masterminding an attack on a Tuareg convoy delivering humanitarian aid to the nomads. 11 Tuaregs were killed in the ambush.
Jun 6, 1992 The transition government headed by Toere, formally resigned.
Jun 8, 1992 Alpha Oumar Konare, leader of ADEMA was sworn in as President.
Jun 27, 1992 The houses and shops of the few remaining Tuareg and Moorish inhabitants in Gao were looted and their occupants beaten. A few hours earlier, Tuaregs attacked two busses killing four and injuring 23.
Jul 1992 Fresh Tuareg rebel attacks occurred even though the first regular sessions of the National Pact follow-up commission, that was established in April to monitor the implementation of the National Peace Pact, was meeting.
Sep 1992 The four Tuareg organizations merged to form the Azaouad Liberation Front (ALF), under the leadership of Brahim Lidmi.
Oct 9, 1992 President Konare announced that France had agreed to financially support implementation of the National Peace Pact between the government and the Tuaregs. The Tuareg forces are to be integrated into the regular army at a cost of 600 million francs (US$2,500,000).
Nov 8, 1992 More than 500 illegal immigrants were expelled from Algeria. Algerian Prime Minister Belaid Abdessalem said urgent measures would be taken to tackle problems caused by an influx of refugees fleeing drought and the Tuareg uprising in Mali and Niger.
Feb 9, 1993 The Malian government signed an agreement with Algeria allowing for the repatriation of between 60,000 and 100,000 Malian Tuaregs.
Feb 11, 1993 An agreement was signed by the government and the MFUA, representing Tuareg rebels, to integrate MFUA guerrillas into the national army.
Feb 12, 1993 Deposed President Moussa Traor'e, and three others, were sentenced to death for "premeditated murder", for the killing of 106 people during pro-democracy demonstrations in March 1991.
Dec 9, 1993 Culture and Communications Minister Cheikna Kamissoko confirmed the arrest of five officers loyal to former President Traor'e, following a coup attempt.
Dec 16, 1993 Three Tuareg refugees, attempting to return home from Mauritania, were stabbed to death by Malian soldiers. "Several days later", seven former Tuareg fighters who had joined the Malian army were killed by regular Malian troops.
Feb 2 - 6, 1994 Malian Prime Minister Sow resigned from his post, and two opposition parties, the National Committee for Democratic Initiative (CNID) and the Rally for Democracy and Progress (RDP), announced their withdrawal from the government. Sow and leaders of the two parties were unhappy with the lack of support from the ADEMA party. This action was preceded by student demonstrations in protest of the educational crises.
Feb 15, 1994 Student violence led to the indefinite closure of all schools and universities in Mali.
Feb 25, 1994 MPA Col. Bilal Saloum was killed in an ambush in northern Mali. The ARLA was suspected of carrying out the attack.
Mar 8, 1994 Clashes between the MPA and the ARLA, sparked by the kidnapping of Kidal's Iforas (Tuareg [clan]) chief, Intalla Ag Attaher, who was close to the MPA, left three ARLA members dead.
Jun 10 - 12, 1994 Despite the peace pact, attempts to integrate the rebels into the Malian army have failed and many fighters have returned to their base camps. 30 Tuaregs were killed in three attacks mounted by rival Tuareg factions. The MPA was targeted by the three other Tuareg groups and is now the only group in which the government may negotiate.
Jun 15, 1994 Three Malian Tuareg movements, the Islamic Arab Front of the Azaouad (FIAA), the ARLA, and the PFLA called on their fighters, already integrated into the army, to quit their posts and return to their bases in northern Mali. This move follows recent clashes between rival Tuareg groups and nullifies the National Peace Pact.
Jun 19, 1994 The Malian President, Alpha Oumar Konare, won agreement from the leaders of Libya, Mauritania, Algeria, Burkina Faso and Niger to coordinate moves to suppress rebel fighting and movement across borders.
Jun 20, 1994 The MFUA, whose representation, in light of recent events, is not clear, renewed their commitment to the National Peace Pact. They added that 176 people had been killed by "forces of order" (police or soldiers) in the last three weeks. They blamed the redeployment of the army in the north for the killings. They also added that the army moves were in response to acts of banditry committed by the people that does not coincide with the spirit of the peace pact.
Jun 26, 1994 Malian officials and Tuareg rebel leaders met in Algeria to attempt to salvage what is left of their National Peace Pact. With the recent flare-up of violence that left some 150 dead since 24 June, the pact is not stable. All of the leaders reasserted their commitment to the principles of the pact.
Jun 30, 1994 The Gandha Koy (Ganda Koi) defence movement, based in the Songhai ethnic group, recently formed to counter Tuareg moves aimed at winning local autonomy and jobs, was believed to be behind an attempted abduction of four Tuareg. The abduction was foiled in a shoot-out between the "suspect individuals" and Malian troops. One Tuareg and one abductor were killed.
Jul 1994 Twenty people, including 7 civilians, were killed by Tuaregs in clashes East of Timbuktu on the 9th. On the 28th, Tuareg rebels killed 35 in a village in the Gao region. It was the sixth reported attack in the past month in a wave of violence that has killed 58 so far. The government blamed the violence on dissidents from the FIAA who rejected a pledge by mainstream Tuaregs to end armed rebellion. Another report stated that 100-150 people were killed by government soldiers known as the Red Beret paratroopers when they attacked the mostly-Tuareg village of Beher (60 km East of Timbuktu). The soldiers were reportedly reacting to the Tuareg attack on Timbuktu. Mauritania and Mali have moved troops closer to their mutual border following clashes there.
Aug 23, 1994 An agreement between Mali, Algeria, the U.N. HCR and the International Fund for Agricultural Development was signed for the return home and reintegration of Malian Tuaregs in Algeria. A similar agreement was signed between Mali, Mauritania and the U.N. HCR (no date given).
Sep 21, 1994 An Amnesty International report claimed that since April 1994, 130 people may have been extrajudicially executed because of their ethnic origin. The report also cited abuses by rebel Tuaregs.
Sep 30, 1994 The Tuareg FIAA (Islamic Front of Azawad) declared an all-out war on the Bamako government. Between the declaration and January 25, 1995, more than 160, mostly Tuaregs, will have been killed in related violence.
Oct 1994 Press reports indicate that Malian refugees are fleeing to Burkina Faso at a rate of about 100 per day. By December, Tuareg refugees in Burkina Faso will have reached 50,000, up from 1500 in 1991. Mauritania holds at least 118,000 Tuareg refugees, armed rebels among them.
Oct 23, 1994 Tuaregs and the Malian government agreed to end the conflict within 6 months. Yet, by 1 December 1994 some 78,000 refugees had fled to Mauritania, 50,000 to Algeria and 50,000 to Burkina Faso.
Jan 18, 1995 The Malian government announced the capture of Ti-n-Edemba, headquarters of the Islamic Arab From of Azawad, the only Tuareg group still thought to be in open conflict with the government.
Jan 25, 1995 Tuareg rebels launched 3 mortar bombs in Timbuktu, killing 2 and wounding 6. Government troops captured the headquarters of FIAA forces in Tim-Adema, north of Timbuktu.
Jun 1995 Ganda Koi set conditions for an end to its fight against the Tuareg: a recognition for the group and its inclusion in the peace process, disarming of Tuareg and civilian movements, and the dismantling of Tuareg bases. Another paramilitary group fighting the Tuareg is reported to be the Bellah Awakening. It is composed of former Tuareg slaves. The last of the Tuareg rebel movements, the Islamic Arab Front of the Azawad, joined the peace process.
Jul 1995 Most of the rebel movements were thought to have joined the peace process by this time. Various press reports give different dates for a peace accord: Reuters reports a peace agreement between the government and Tuaregs being agreed to in mid-1995; the U.S. Country Reports on Human Rights Practices for 1995 reports an accord of January 1995; Deutsche Press Agentur claimed a peace agreement was not reached until March 1996.
Oct 27, 1995 About 1800 Tuareg in Algeria were scheduled to begin returning to Mali (Gao) on 28 October 1995.
Dec 1995 About 300 refugees returned to Mali from Algeria under UNHCR supervision. The UNHCR said that about 30,000 refugees have returned on their own to Mali and that they have begun repatriation of refugees in Algeria and Mauritania. The clashes between Tuareg rebels and government troops have dramatically died down since 1994, and no serious attacks were reported after January 1995.
Jan 14, 1996 About 400 Tuareg refugees returned home to Mali after living for years in Algeria. Several hundred other refugees have trickled back home since last year from the more than 30,000 who had fled to Algeria.
Mar 27, 1996 President Konare presided over a ceremony marking the end of the conflict between government and rebel troops. As part of the peace agreement reached in 1995, 3000 firearms were burned.
Jun 19, 1996 The United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees said it would raise $12.9 million for the repatriation of Malian and Nigerian refugees this year.
Jul 23, 1996 The Tuareg rebellion which peaked in 1994 has virtually ended. The Commissarat au Nord, which was responsible for northern Mali and issues affecting the Tuareg rebellion, has been replaced by a ministry for arid and semi-arid zones. It is headed by Tiebite Drame who served as foreign minister in the 1991-92 transitional government.
Nov 12, 1996 Niger, Mali and the U.N. High Commissioner for Refugees signed an agreement which makes provisions for the repatriation of 25,000 Malian refugees living in Niger.
Nov 25, 1996 Donors have released $3 million of the $12 million needed for Mali's program for the reintegration of former rebels, including the Tuareg and Ghanda Koye Black Patriotic Movement. The programs were set up as a key provision of the 1995 peace accord and they include providing a demobilization allowance to former rebels.
Jan 2, 1997 Tuareg refugees in Burkina Faso insist that conditions in Mali are not conducive to their return. So far, only 2500 Tuaregs have left Burkina Faso under operations run by the U.N. High Commissioner for Refugees. During the first half of 1995, significant numbers of refugees began to voluntarily return to Mali, but some Tuareg representatives continued to express their concern that preparations within Mali for their reintegration remained unsatisfactory. The Burkinabe government said it would not force the refugees to return to Mali.
Feb 6, 1997 The U.N. High Commissioner for Refugees estimates that 62,000 more refugees will ask to return to Mali in 1997. Between November 1995-November 1996, 72,000 Malian refugees returned to their country of origin. The HCR claims that the repatriation of Malian refugees is one of Africa's rare success stories and estimates that by 1998, the problem will be totally resolved.
Apr 13, 1997 Elections for the country's new 147-member National Assembly began amid various organizational problems. Polling stations in parts of Bamako and in nearby areas failed to open on time, disputes over voter lists and cards arose, and some stations did not have adequate voting materials. Twenty-one parties presented a total of 1,500 candidates for the new legislature.(Source: Kaleidoscope, 1/14/99)
Apr 25, 1997 The Constitutional Court announced the annulment of the results of first-round legislative elections on April 13, citing a number of irregularities. Because of the ruling, second-round balloting for the new 147-member legislature will not be held as scheduled on April 27. (Source: Kaleidoscope, 1/14/99)
May 1997 According to officials at the United Nations refugee agency in Tobouctou, approximately 102,429 Malian refugees had been repatriated, 40,960 of them from Mauritania. Still due to return were 15,000 from Mauritania, 24,000 from Burkina Faso, 4,000 from Algeria, and 20,000 from Niger.
May 16, 1997 The independent electoral commission announced that President Alpha Oumar Konare has been elected to a second five-year term, according to the official results of the May 11 presidential election. Konare's only opponent in the race was Mamadou Maribatrou Diaby, who heads the Party for Unity, Progress, and Democracy. (Source: Kaleidoscope, 1/14/99)
Jul 20, 1997 Because of a boycott by the 18-party radical opposition, less than 10% of registered voters turned out for a second attempt at holding general elections. (The Constitutional Court voided the results of April 13 balloting because of electoral irregularities.) The balloting proceeded calmly in the capital, Bamako, but state television reported that two people were killed in clashes between government supporters and opposition members in San, a city in central Mali that is a stronghold of the radical opposition. Antigovernment demonstrators were reported to have attacked 13 of the city's 29 polling stations during the day. Second-round elections are scheduled for Aug 3.(Source: Kaleidoscope, 1/14/99)
Aug 3, 1997 The ruling Alliance for Democracy in Mali (ADEMA) won eight seats being contested in second-round legislative balloting. ADEMA had already won a large legislative majority in last month's first-round balloting. Overall, the party won 130 of the National Assembly's 147 seats. Meanwhile, two parties that support President Alpha Oumar Konare captured 12 seats and three opposition parties secured five seats. The elections were boycotted by the 18-party radical opposition. (Source: Kaleidoscope, 1/14/99)
Aug 11, 1997 Authorities released 70 opposition members who had been arrested earlier in the day. About 20 of the detainees were injured during questioning. The arrests followed the August 9 lynching death of a police officer who was present at an opposition meeting. (Source: Kaleidoscope, 1/14/99)
Aug 23, 1997 Authorities placed under perfusion three opposition leaders who began a hunger strike after being detained on Aug 10. The leaders were arrested along with seven other opposition figures following the lynching of a plainclothes police officer at an opposition gathering. A serious political crisis has developed in Mali since the Constitutional Court annulled the results of April 13 first-round legislative elections (Source: Kaleidoscope, 1/14/99)
Sep 16, 1997 President Alpha Oumar Konare named members of a new government formed by presidential decree. The new government consists of 22 members four more than the previous cabinet and includes 11 newcomers. Three progovernment parties and four moderate opposition parties are represented, while no members of the 18 radical opposition parties were named. On Sep 13, President Konare reconfirmed Ibrahima Boubacar Keita as prime minister. Keita has held the post since 1994. (Source: Kaleidoscope, 1/14/99)
Oct 18 - 21, 1997 At a reconciliatory meeting in Inekar, northern Mali, representatives from Mali and Niger agreed to work together with the Tuaregs to settle their border problems amicably. Their have been bloody clashes between farmers and stockbreeders from the two countries in that region. (BBC Summary of World Broadcasts, 10/22/97)
Jan 7, 1998 The government ordered that all public and private schools in the country be shut down following a nearly month-long students' strike over funding. Students, under the leadership of the Association of Malian Students, began the strike on Dec 11, demanding a 75% increase in government funding, which the government says would be excessive and in violation of its economic agreements with the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund.(Source: Kaleidoscope, 1/14/99)
Feb 5, 1998 At a summit in Tripoli, leaders of Mali, Niger, Chad, Sudan, Libya, and Burkina Faso signed an agreement to create the Sahara-Sahelian Community States Rally (RCES), aimed at increasing agricultural, industrial, social, and economic cooperation among the six countries. The group will seek to promote external trade and eventually ensure the free flow of goods, capital, and people between member states. The group also agreed to improve security cooperation and abide by policies of noninterference and nonaggression in the government affairs of member countries. Libyan leader Col. Muammar Qadhafi will serve as the first RCES chairperson.(Source: Kaleidoscope, 1/14/99)
Mar 8, 1998 The UNHCR is continuing its voluntary repatriation of Sahel Tuareg refugees to their various countries; 350 Malians left their camp in Niger today for Mali. (Source: BBC Summary of World Broadcasts, 3/8/98)
Mar 25, 1998 In Gao, northern Mali, five officers, all former Tuareg rebels, have joined the army. (Source: BBC Summary of World Broadcasts, 3/25/98)
Sep 17, 1998 The European Commission has approved a package of humanitarian aid worth ECU 5 million for resettling refugees and diplaced people in Northern Mali. The aid will enable the International Committee of the Red Cross and European non-governmental organizations to carry out a program covering the next six to nine months. After five years of conflict between rebel Tuareg factions and the army, people are gradually returning to Northern Mali, but their prospects are very poor, given poverty, the level of destruction and the effects of drought.(Source: RAPID, 9/17/98)
Jan 14, 1999 Former ruler Moussa Traore was sentenced to death for the second time, this time for embezzlement. His sentence was subsequently commuted to life in prison by President Alpha Oumar Konare. The ousted dictator received his first death sentence for "crimes of blood" after he was overthrown in 1991. Konare commuted that sentence to life in prison as well.(Source: Kaleidoscope, 1/14/99)
Apr 28, 2004 Ahmed Mohamed Ag Hamani, a Tuareg, is removed from his post as Prime Minister of Mali in a cabinet reshuffle. (Owen, Olly, 04/29/2004, “Malian Government Resigns En Masse,” World Markets Analysis)
Jul 2, 2004 Unidentified perpetrators attacked a Malian Red Cross unit in Northern Mali. Land rovers and money were stolen, but no one was harmed. (Africa News, 07/02/2004, "Mali; Red Cross Team Attacked in North”)
Sep 2004 Tuareg in northern Mali attacked a Kounta compound killing five Kounta members and eight Tuareg. (Owen, Olly, 09/13/2004, “Ethnic Clashes Follow Jailbreak in Northern Mali,” World Markets Analysis)
Oct 18, 2004 A customs officer offered to mediate between the two fighting Tuareg factions. The officer was ambushed and killed by one of the factions. Authorities arrested and charged one person in the incident. (United States Departement of State. 2/28/2005. "Country Reports of Human Rights Practices-2004: Mali." Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor.)
May 23, 2006 Tuareg seized two army bases in northern Mali, while holding some soldiers hostage. The attack is thought to have resulted in six deaths and 4,500 displaced from the Kidal region after fear of reprisal attacks. (Agence France Presse, 05/30/2006, “Mali army says attacks by former Tuareg rebels killed six”)
Jul 4, 2006 Tuareg militants from the Democratic Alliance for Change signed a, Algeria mediated peace treaty with the government that will increase development of the northern regions of Mali in exchange for the organization’s disarmament. (IRIN, 07/05/2006, “MALI: Government strikes new peace deal with Tuareg rebel”)
Jul 31, 2006 The government launched a $21 million development program in Northern Mali, funded by the EU, after a peace treaty was signed with Tuareg rebels. (Africa News, 07/31/2006, “Mali; Government Launches Big Development Scheme in Rebel Areas”)
Sep 1 - Oct 24, 2006 Salafist Group for Preaching and Combat (GSPC) ambushed the Tuareg Democatic Alliance for Change organization killing nine. The ambush is thought to be a reprisal for an earlier attack in which the Tuareg killed a GSPC leader. (Reuters, 10/24/2006, “Algerian militants ambush Malian Tuaregs, kill 9”)


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Information current as of July 16, 2010