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Minorities At Risk Project: Home    

Chronology for Zanzibaris in Tanzania

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Date(s) Item
1509 Portuguese occupied the islands of Zanzibar, Pemba and Mafia.
1652 The Omani empire attacked Zanzibar and Pate. The Islands then became a protectorate of the Omani empire.
1753 A Mazrui attempt to conquer Zanzibar was defeated. Zanzibar remained loyal to Oman.
1840 The Omani state transferred its capital from Muscat to Zanzibar because of its strategic location for commerce. Local Africans on Zanzibar were forcibly removed from the most productive land to make room for clove plantations. Many were required to do forced labor. Slaves were brought in from mainland Africa. Arabs were less intrusive on the island of Pemba where a mixed population became involved in clove production. In the mid-19th century, Europeans became increasingly involved in trade with Zanzibar. Ngoni, moving north from southern Africa, invaded southern Tanzania.
1861 The territories of the Omani Sultanate were divided into African and Arab sections.
1862 A joint French-British treaty recognized the independence of Zanzibar from Oman.
1870 Sultan Barghash became the ruler of Zanzibar.
1886 An Anglo-German commission met, without the Sultan of Oman, to divide his territories. They allotted Zanzibar, Pemba , Mafia, and Lamu islands and a 6 km coastal strip stretching from Mozambique to the Tana River in Kenya to Oman. Britain and Germany claimed much of mainland Tanzania and Kenya for themselves.
Aug 1888 A rebellion against exploitation by the German East African Company and Coastal traders in coastal towns was put down with the aid of British warships.
1890 - 1963 Zanzibar was ruled by Omani sultans under a British protectorate.
1891 - 1898 Peoples of the region, including the Zaramo, Chagga, Nyamwezi, Gogo, Hehe, Yao and Haya were in rebellion against European rule. There was also revolt in Zanzibar.
1919 Britain took over the administration of Tanganyika under a League of Nations’ mandate.
1925 The administration of Zanzibar was separated from Kenya.
Jul 7, 1954 TANU (Tanganyika African National Union) was founded under the leadership of Julius Nyerere
1956 The United Tanganyika Party (UTP) was formed to provide an alternative to TANU. It was headed by a European and financed mainly by European and Asian business interests. Unrest in the late 1950s was endemic in rural areas on the mainland, often in reaction to government efforts to establish multiracial district councils. The Zanzibar Nationalist Party was formed. It was led by Arabs and included Shirazi but excluded mainlanders who were not subjects of the sultan. The ASU (Afro-Shirazi Union, later the ASP-Afro-Shirazi Party) was formed.
1957 Tensions were high on the islands and elections were won by ASP. Political rivalry led to Arab-African clashes
Jan 1961 Elections took place in preparation for independence. The ASP won 40% of the vote in Zanzibar and ten of twenty-two seats; the ZNP took nine seats and close to 36% of the vote. The ZPPP (Zanzibar and Pemba People’s Party), formed in 1959, took 17% of the vote. Tensions were high and the ZNP was accused of stressing racial and religious differences in its campaign. The election was followed by a week of rioting in which 68 Arabs were killed and several hundred persons injured. The ZNP and ZPPP later joined forces to form a coalition government under Sheikh Mohammed Shamte.
Dec 9, 1961 Tanganyika became fully independent. Nyerere became Prime Minister.
Dec 10, 1963 Zanzibar gained independence as an independent Sultanate.
Jan 12, 1964 A bloody revolution against the Sultanate of Oman took place in Zanzibar, led by John Okello, a Kenyan migrant laborer. It was supported by members of the Umma Party and the Federation of Progressive Trade Unions. Okello was immediately toppled by Sheik Abeid Karume. Between 5,000-15,000 people, mostly Arab and Indian merchants, reportedly died in the clashes.
Apr 26, 1964 The United Republic of Tanzania was formed. Zanzibar maintained almost complete political and economic autonomy for more than a decade after the union (1977).
1972 The President of Zanzibar and Vice President of the Union Karume was assassinated. Karume took power after the 1964 revolution against the sultanate of Oman. He had been accused of masterminding the killings of leading politicians and businessmen in the late 1960s, and many fled the islands as a result. He was succeeded by Aboud Jumbe.
Jul 14, 1980 A coup plot in Zanzibar was uncovered and 16 people were detained for questioning about their involvement.
Oct 26 - 30, 1980 Dar es Salaam radio said members of the Tanzania People’s Defense Forces in Zanzibar put on demonstrations in support of the ruling government and to congratulate the reelection of Aboud Jumbe as President of Zanzibar (BBC, 11/3/1980). On October 26th, Julius Nyerere was reelected to his fourth consecutive term, but voters rejected more than half the incumbents in Parliament in protest over the ailing economy (Facts on File, 11/21/1980).
Oct 1981 Zanzibar’s Deputy Minister of Defense and National Service warned members of the armed forces not to engage in armed robbery (BBC, 10/5/1981)
Jan 1984 Increasing anti-union sentiment in Zanzibar led to the resignation of President Aboud Jumbe and to a reshuffling of the government. Ali Hassan Mwinyi emerged as President of Zanzibar and in 1985 succeeded Julius Nyerere as President of the Union. The President of Zanzibar also serves as one of two Vice Presidents of the federal government of Tanzania (a union of Zanzibar and Pemba islands and the mainland of Tanganyika).
Feb 1984 A debate over proposed constitutional changes led to the spread of anti-union sentiment on the island of Zanzibar (BBC, 4/14/1984) Zanzibaris feared that the mainland was plotting to break the union constitution and withdraw the autonomy enjoyed by the islands . Apart from defense and external finances, Zanzibar rules autonomously from the Union government (IPS, 10/25/1984)
Dec 10, 1986 Zanzibar’s Chief Minister Seif Shariff cautioned against anti-Union sentiment on the island. Over the past two decades, the islanders have periodically complained that Zanzibar suffered from Union with Tanganyika.
Jan 1988 Zanzibar’s President Idriss Wakil announced that a coup plot against his government had been discovered. He emphasized that the Union would continue and the two governments would fight secessionists to the end (IPS, 1/12/1988)
Apr 1988 The ruling CCM (Chama Cha Mapinduzi) party Secretary-General Rashidi Kawawa announced that the rumors that CCM Chairman Nyerere and President Mwinyi were at odds were false. (BBC, 4/11/1988)
May 1988 Moslem youth tried to march on Zanzibari President Idris Abdul Wakil’s residence. They threw rocks at police lines before police opened fire killing one and wounding 11 others. The protest followed a speech by an influential Tanzanian politician who proposed reform of Islamic laws on polygamy and that women be granted more rights. Former Chief Minister of Zanzibar Sheik Sharif Hamad and six other senior government officials were expelled from the ruling party on charges that they supported the demonstrators and were in favor of secession. In 1987, Hamad was removed from CCM’s Central Committee and thrown out of the government of Zanzibar. (Xinhua, 5/14/1988) In 1985, Hamad made a bid for the presidency of Zanzibar, but instead Wakil was chosen by the CCM to run. Wakil won with just 61% of the vote even though he was the only candidate. (Africa News Service (ANS), 6/13/1988)
Aug 1989 The Zanzibar government has refused entry to the islands to elements proved to have links to dissident groups. Over the past two years, the government has claimed that certain Gulf countries have been training people to sabotage the Union. (Xinhua, 8/30/1989)
May 23, 1990 The World Food Program was distributing rice to 165,000 people on Zanzibar and Pemba. Crops have been devastated by disease since 1987 when the WFP began distributing food on the islands. (IPS)
Jul 1990 The ruling CCM (Chama Cha Mapinduz) announced it would nominate only one presidential candidate for the next general elections, scheduled for October, in Zanzibar. Usually two candidates are nominated.
Jun 4, 1991 The London-based Tanzania Youth Democratic Movement claimed it would import armed conflict into Tanzania to speed up the transition to multiparty politics. The Movement was established last year by political dissidents who fled Tanzania in 1990 (Xinhua).
Nov 23, 1991 Tanzanian opposition groups, including the National Committee for Constitutional Reform, called off a rally due to be held in Dar es Salaam, accusing the government of trying to provoke violence in the face of calls for democratic reform. Zanzibari opposition leader Sheik Sharif Hamad was released after spending 30 months in detention in Zanzibar. He is awaiting trial on illegally possessing government documents.
Feb 1992 Zanzabari President Salmin Amour warned the public against staging unauthorized demonstrations. An unofficial pressure group, the Steering Committee for Free Political Parties in Zanzibar (Kamahuru) called for rallies on Pemba on 14th and 16th February, but the government refused permits for the rallies. The group opposes the CCM National Executive Committees’ proposal that only national parties be registered. (Xinhua, 2/7/1992) The government has decided to introduce multi-partyism to Tanzania, but said it would crack down on those inciting citizens against the government. (BBC, 2/25/1992)
May 1992 The Tanzanian National Assembly amended the constitution to allow for multiparty politics.
Jul 3, 1992 About 30 prospective political parties have applied for provisional registration since the process towards political pluralism formally began. Parties cannot have religious, tribal or ethnic motives, cannot advocate the break-up of the Union and cannot advocate violence as a means of attaining political objectives. Elections are scheduled to take place in 1995.
Dec 1992 Zanzibar unilaterally joined the Organization of the Islamic Conference in violation of the Union Constitution. The Zanzibar government said it joined the Conference by mandate of its own constitution in order to achieve greater economic benefits. Tanzanian President Mwinyi publicly endorsed the Zanzibar decision, but the opposition was incensed and demanded his impeachment. Zanzibar was later forced to withdraw from the OIC. Mwinyi has been accused of favoring Muslim and Zanzibari interests. He has repeatedly affirmed the secular nature of the state, but has done little to curb a growing fundamentalist attitude among some Tanzanian Muslims. Tanzania is about 34% Christian, 33% Muslim and the 33% other religions while Zanzibaris are mainly Muslim.
Jan 25, 1993 Democratic Party leader Christopher Mtikila was arrested after rioting by hundreds of his supporters. The DP was legalized last year along with other political organizations, however it has not been granted legal status as a political party.
Jan 31, 1993 One person was killed when police opened fire on a political gathering of CUF (Civic United Front) supporters on the island of Pemba. Zanzibari President Salim Amour urged the opposition to remain peaceful during the transition to pluralist politics.
Feb 1993 A Parliamentary Commission ruled that Zanzibar’s joining the OIC was unconstitutional.
Mar 1993 Opposition parties demanded that the government resign over its ineffectiveness in curbing secessionist sentiment on the islands of Zanzibar and Pemba. Tensions between the islands has occasionally surfaced as has Muslim-non-Muslim sentiment on the mainland.
Apr 29, 1993 The Tanzanian government banned the Muslim fundamentalist group Balukta for inciting violence after its supporters went on a rampage smashing shops which sell pork. Thirty-eight were arrested in the incident, including the leader of Balukta Sheikh Yahya Hussein.
Aug 9, 1993 Zanzibar President Salmin Amour told opposition parties to carry their arguments to parliament if they win any seats in the next general elections.
Aug 13, 1993 Zanzibari President Amour announced that Zanzibar would pull out of the Organization of the Islamic Conference. (Indian Ocean Newsletter (ION), 8/28/1993))
Aug 23, 1993 Parliament unanimously adopted a motion calling for a constitutional revision to permit the establishment of a separate government for the mainland. It has the backing of Union President Mwinyi and would create a third government in addition to the Union government and the government of Zanzibar. (ION, 8/28/1993)
Sep 24, 1993 Mainland opposition leader Christopher Mtikila was released on bond pending charges of sedition and making violence. He had been in police custody for two weeks. His Democratic Party remains unregistered and advocates the separation of Tanzania from Zanzibar. He has gained popularity among the urban poor who support his racial attacks against Asians and Arabs.
Jan 16, 1994 With the opening up of the country to multiparty politics, the issue of secession for Zanzibar has again surfaced in Tanzania. Zanzibar has a population of 845,000 and is dominated by Muslims. It has its own constitution and a separate president and parliament, yet it also is part of the Union of Tanzania and has 75 seats in the Union parliament which cannot pass laws affecting Zanzibar without a 2/3 majority amongst Zanzibari representatives. Most islanders would prefer secession. Tensions between Christians and Muslims and between Africans and Arabs and Indians remain high throughout the year, though there were no major incidents of violence. A group of parliamentarians on the mainland continued to challenge the CCM’s longstanding policy on the Union’s framework and criticized Zanzibar’s representation and influence in state institutions. In August the CCM declared debate on the Union closed. The Muslim community claims it is discriminated against in terms of its representation in the civil service and government run industry while Christians accuse Union President Mwinyi, a Muslim, of favoring Muslims in his government.
Aug 1994 The National Assembly rescinded the motion that established a third government in Tanzania (to oversee the mainland).
Aug 1 - Sep 30, 1995 About 20 people were killed in Ngorongoro district in ethnic clashes between Maasai and Sonjo tribesmen. The government deployed riot police to quell the disturbances.
Aug 27, 1995 The CUF appointed Ibrahim Lumpumba, an economist at Dar es Salaam University, as its candidate for the October presidential election. The CUF favors a three-tier system of government with looser ties to the mainland.
Sep 7, 1995 Calls for greater autonomy for Zanzibar grew louder as the country’s first multiparty election approached. Anti-Islamic sentiment grew on the mainland.
Oct 15, 1995 Police tear gassed an opposition rally on the island of Pemba causing a stampede that injured 27 people.
Oct 24, 1995 Violence erupted in the capital Zanzibar when protestors hurled stones at police when the first results of island elections pointed to a clear victory for the CCM. Polling itself was relatively peaceful, and declared free and fair by independent observers. However, the vote counting was declared fraudulent. The OAU was attempting to mediate between the CCM and CUF, both of whom rejected the Zanzibar elections. The electoral commission delayed the release of the final results of the poll for several days. The CCM demanded the whole general election be nullified and called for a complete re-vote in 3-6 months and for a new electoral commission. The CUF threatened civil disobedience unless there was a recount of the presidential ballots. It said it would boycott the vote on the mainland if the Zanzibar Electoral Commission remained in charge. Eleven Western countries issued a curt statement after the Zanzibar elections demanding a recount. International observers said the CUF probably won the elections. Final results gave the CCM the presidency with 50.8% of the vote going to incumbent Salim Amour against 49.3% going to CUF’s Sheik Sharif Hamad. Of a total of 50 parliamentary seats, CUF won 23 while CCM won 27. On the island of Pemba, the CUF won all 20 parliamentary seats. Pembans living on Unguja island were regarded as CUF supporters and were harassed after the elections. Many CUF supporters have deserted Unguja for Pemba or the mainland. After the elections, police regularly detained, arrested and harassed CUF members and suspected supporters.
Nov 2, 1995 Dar es Salaam was tense as residents awaited the results of a High Court ruling on an opposition petition to have the mainland elections declared null and void. Elections turned sour when a shortage of ballot papers, especially in the capital, prevented large numbers of people from voting. The vote in the capital was canceled and rescheduled for 12 November. Presidential candidates included Augustine Mrema (NCCR), Ibrahim Lipumba (Civic United Front), John Cheyo (United Democratic Party) and Benjamin Mkapa (CCM). In the end, the CCM gained 186 of 232 elective parliamentary seats and its presidential candidate Benjamin Mkapa won 61.8% of the vote.
Feb 4, 1996 The CUF boycotted the opening session of Zanzibar’s new parliament. CUF has 24 seats while the CCM holds 42 seats in the Zanzibar parliament.
Feb 18, 1996 Tanzanian President Mkapa said only the Zanzibar parliament had the mandate to settle the political conflict on the islands. Zanzibar President Amour has consolidated his position by selecting ministers from the CCM despite pressure to form a coalition government with the CUF. He has also clamped down on opposition activity by arresting CUF activists for treason. More than 10,000 CUF supporters living on the main island have fled back to the island of Pemba.
Feb 20, 1996 The CUF protested against the arrest of Haji Kombo, CUF-MP for Pemba Island. He was accused of holding a CUF rally without authorization of the police. Since October 1994, three CUF MPS have been imprisoned without the authorities respecting their parliamentary immunity.
Apr 1996 Zanzibar has been in political turmoil since elections in October 1995. CUF activists are accused of setting fire to schools and of a recent bombing of a transformer at Mtoni power station. Forty people have been arrested in the latter incident. The CUF appears to be tapping into mounting Muslim fervor and is supporting the introduction of sharia law on Zanzibar.
Aug 17, 1996 An estimated 12,000 CUF supporters held their first rally on Zanzibar since elections in October 1995. The rally was peaceful and there was a light police presence.
May 1997 NCCR-Maguezi, mainland Tanzania’s only credible opposition party fell apart when its intellectual wing, led by Secretary General Mabere Marando and Dr. Masumbuko Lamwai, decided to get rid of NCRR populist Chairman Augustine Mremea before he could entrench himself in as the party’s presidential candidate for the scheduled 2000 elections.
Jul 12, 1997 Twenty-five young Zanzibari who had unsuccessfully sought political asylum in Europe after Zanzibar’s October 1995 elections, returned to Zanzibar where their passports were taken away to prevent them from leaving again. Two to three hundred Zanzibari youth have been granted asylum in Britain and Scandinavian countries, and since the 1995 elections, applications for asylum have dramatically increased in those countries. Residents of the island of Pemba have been discriminated against as it is a bastion of the opposition. For example, during the elections, many Pembans were denied voting rights because the electoral law states that voters must be continuous residents in their constituencies for five years. Many Pembans who work or go to school on Zanzibar were therefore ineligible to vote.
Sep 15, 1997 Some 100 Kenyans from the Coastal Province have fled to the island of Pemba following the outbreak of ethnic conflict. Both the Coastal people and Pembans are Muslims and speak Swahili. Historically, parts of Kenya fell under the Sultanates of Oman and Zanzibar. (Inter Press Service (IPS))
Jan 4, 1998 Police prevented the Civic United Front (CUF) from holding a meeting in Zanzibar to protest the trial of 14 opposition MPS. The police also carried out a preventive campaign detaining a number of CUF supporters and journalists. (ION, 1/10/1998) President Mkapa called on the government and opposition to start a dialogue in order to resolve political conflict in Zanzibar. (BBC, 1/10/1997)
Jan 13, 1998 Sixty people demonstrated at the Tanzanian High Commission in London in protest at the continued detention of 45 opposition activists, including 14 MPS, and the deteriorating human rights climate on the island of Zanzibar. The protestors want the removal of Zanzibari president Salim Amour and fresh elections. The London-based Zanzibar for Democracy was set up in 1996 to promote and monitor the democratization process in Zanzibar in the wake of the 1995 elections. The opposition CUF continues to boycott legislative secessions and refuses to recognize Amour as president. The arrests of opposition activists began in November 1997. (IPS)
Feb 1998 Seventeen jailed opposition activists in Zanzibar asked the Catholic Church to intervene in the political crisis on the islands. The CUF has tapped into mounting Muslim fervor and wants the introduction of sharia law in Zanzibar. (IPS, 2/12/1998) Tanzania accused some foreign embassies of supporting Muslim youths in riots near a Mosque in Dar es Salaam which left two dead. The violence erupted when Moslems protested the detention of their leader by destroying dozens of vehicles and stoned approaching policemen. Police forced their way into the Mosque and made some 130 arrests. (Xinhua, 2/18/1998)
Mar 1998 The Tanzanian government deported illegal aliens from several African and Asian countries in a bid to check increasing Islamic fundamentalism. The Moslem Council of Tanzania accused several Islamic organizations from Libya and Saudi Arabia of being instigators Islamic fundamentalism in Tanzania. (Agence France Presse, 3/23/1998)
Jun 17, 1998 President Amour appointed four non-nationals to the judiciary, prompting the opposition to accuse him of undermining the independence of the judiciary. (IPS)
Aug 11, 1998 The CUF general assembly issued an official statement acknowledging and accepting Commonwealth proposals aimed at resolving political conflict between the CUF and CCM in Zanzibar. The CUF ended its boycott of Parliament and recognized the government of Amour. (BBC)
Nov 1998 The CCM remained divided over what attitude to adopt towards the CCM-CUF reconciliation process. (ION, 11/21/1998)
Jan 1999 International pressure mounted over the trial of 18 legislators charged with conspiring to overthrow the government. The majority of the defendants were arrested on the eve of the by-election at Mkunazini constituency in Zanzibar on 30 November 1997. The winner of that election, CUF’s Juma Duine Haji was also imprisoned. (IPS, 1/24/1999)
May 15, 1999 Tanzanian President Benjamin Mkapa and Zanzibari President Salmin Amour met with leaders of the government of Zanzibar to discuss various issues in the wake of an agreement between the CUF and CCM to resolve their political differences. The draft agreement on ending the stalemate was prepared by the Commonwealth. The agreement provides for more independence for the Zanzibar Electoral Commission, for the reform of the judiciary and for the appointment of two CUF members to the Zanzibar cabinet. In addition, CUF MPS will return to Parliament. (ION)
Jun 10, 1999 The CCM and CUF participated in a ceremony to mark the signing of a political agreement between the two parties. (BBC)
Mar 6, 2004 Uamsho, an umbrella Muslim fundamentalist organization, protested after police banned its political rallies for security reasons. Police responded with tear gas, injuring seven and arresting 32. (US Department of State. 2/28/2005. “Country Reports on Human Rights Practices— 2004: Tanzania.” Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor; BBC Monitoring Africa, 3/7/2004, “Police fire tear gas to disperse rioting Muslims in Zanzibar”)
Mar 20, 2004 Unknown perpetrators threw a hand grenade at the house of Zubeir Ali Maulid, the Zanzibar minister for communications and transport. (BBC Monitoring Africa, 3/22/2004, “'Sheer luck’ saves UK diplomat from Zanzibar grenade attack”)
Apr 4 - 10, 2004 The Zanzibari government announced that it will use its flag instead of the Tanzania national flag in all international matters. (Africa News, 4/12/2004, “Tanzania; Zanzibar to Start Flying Its Own Flag Abroad”)
Apr 10, 2004 Voter registration for Zanzibari residents has been postponed indefinitely due to lack of funds. (BBC Monitoring Africa, 4/10/2004, “Registration of voters in Zanzibar said postponed indefinitely”)
Apr 22 - 29, 2004 Seven people were arrested and charged with the arson of the Palm Beach Hotel in Bwejuu. Included in the seven people was Mbochwe Suleiman Ame, a leading member in the ruling Chama Cha Mapinduzi (CCM) party. (BBC Monitoring Africa, 4/30/2008, “Zanzibar: Ruling CCM party official among those charged with arson”)
May 28, 2004 - May 31, 2005 Zanzibar police arrested Sheikh Kurwa Shauri, an Islamic activist. He was then deported from the islands, in accordance with a 1993 government order accusing him of disrupting the peace and inciting inter-religious conflict. In May 2005, when he attempted to return, he was barred from entering the islands. (US Department of State. 2005-2006. “Country Reports on Human Rights Practices—2004,2005: Tanzania.” Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor.)
Jun 1 - 25, 2004 The government seized 32 vehicles the Civic United Front (CUF) opposition party used to welcome back Seif Shariff Hamad, one of their leaders. (BBC Monitoring Africa, 6/25/2004, “Zanzibar police seize 32 vehicles used to welcome opposition leader”)
Aug 2, 2004 A bomb exploded at the CCM Mapinduzi Bomani branch office. (BBC Monitoring Africa, 8/2/2004, “Tanzania: Ruling party office burned in Zanzibar”)
Dec 1 - 3, 2004 Violence erupted at a voter registration location when SMZ troops tried to register to vote. Three people were shot and one killed when Army for National Reconstruction (JKU) troops opened fire at the registration site. Two days later in Pemba, in what police believed to be an incident related to registration violence, a police officer was stabbed to death. (BBC Monitoring Africa, 12/1/2004, “Zanzibar residents said against voter registration of security forces”; Xinhua, 12/3/2004, “High ranking police officer stabbed to death in Zanzibar”)
Mar 6, 2005 Tanzanian police raided homes in the Kilimahewa area in Zanzibar, arresting 13 people. (BBC Monitoring Africa, 3/8/2005, “Tanzanian police raid Zanzibar neighbourhood”)
Mar 6 - 9, 2005 In violence related to the upcoming elections, 14 people were injured due to rivalries between the ruling CCM and the opposition CUF. Three vehicles were destroyed and opposition party offices were burned. Following the fighting, police arrested 18. (Africa News, 3/8/2005, “Tanzania; Political Party Clash Leaves 14 Injured”; BBC Monitoring Africa, 3/9/2008, “Zanzibar police reportedly arrest 18 over pre-election violence”)
Apr 3, 2005 The house of CUF leader Abbas Muhunzi was set on fire and destroyed. He and his family got out safely. (Africa News, 4/6/2005, “Tanzania; Violence in Zanzibar Stops Voter Registration”)
Apr 3, 2005 Police arrested Machano Khamis, the Vice Chairman of the opposition CUF party, claiming he was part of a campaign to intimidate voters during registration. (BBC Monitoring Africa, 4/4/2005, “Opposition official arrested in Zanzibar”)
Apr 10, 2005 Police broke up a group of demonstrators that had assembled to march on the Zanzibar Electoral Commission, protesting the government’s prevention of registering residents in the permanent voter database. (BBC Monitoring Africa, 4/11/2005, “Zanzibar's anti-riot police break up demonstration”)
Apr 13, 2005 A clash occurred between police and 50 individuals who stormed a voter registration location. Nine people and a policeman were injured. (BBC Monitoring Africa, 4/13/2005, “Zanzibar police clash with activists at poll registration centre”)
Apr 25, 2005 A bomb exploded at a house belonging to the ruling CCM. Three people have been arrested in conjunction with the attacks. (BBC Monitoring Africa, 4/25/2005, “Tanzania: Bomb explodes at house belonging to ruling party”)
Jun 2005 Police arrested Assah Mwambene, reporter and editor of the Daily News, a state-owned newspaper. They charged that he wrote articles about voter registration that were threatening to state security. (US Department of State. 03/08/2006. “Country Reports on Human Rights Practices— 2005: Tanzania.” Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor.)
Jul 1 - Aug 31, 2005 Police beat Selemani Juma Mpusa for trespassing in a police camp. He died a month later due to complications caused by the beatings. (US Department of State. 03/08/2006. “Country Reports on Human Rights Practices— 2005: Tanzania.” Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor.)
Aug 10, 2005 Three people were attacked and injured and three houses were burned in Stone Town in poll-related violence. (BBC Monitoring Africa, 8/11/2005, “Poll-related violence continues in Zanzibar”)
Sep 16, 2005 A CUF campaign rally turned violent when youths with stones and knives interrupted the meeting. They injured five people. (BBC Monitoring Africa, 9/16/2005, “Five injured as campaign violence rocks Zanzibar”)
Oct 2005 The CUF opposition party was denied its request to hold a campaign meeting in Donge constituency. In the confrontation that resulted, police fired tear gas and bullets, injuring five people. (US Department of State. 03/08/2006. “Country Reports on Human Rights Practices— 2005: Tanzania.” Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor.)
Oct 9, 2005 In violence in Mahonda Mkoa, Zanzibar between CUF opposition party and Anti-Riot Police Unit, 18 people were injured. (BBC Monitoring Africa, 10/9/2005, “Zanzibar: Police say eight people sustained bullet wounds in clash”)
Oct 30, 2005 CUF supporters were responsible for violence at several polling locations during the Zanzibar elections in an attempt to disrupt voters. Police used tear gas and at least one live bullet to disperse protesters. CCM supporters had to be bussed to polling locations for protection. (National Post, 10/31/2005, “Zanzibari elections marred by violence”)
Oct 31 - Dec 16, 2005 At least 60 people from Tumbatu have fled to Nungwi to protect themselves from political persecution and the violence following the national elections. (Africa News, 12/16/2005, “Tanzania; Dozens Reportedly Displaced in Post Election Violence in Zanzibar”)
Nov 1, 2005 Unidentified armed North Pemba residents stormed a police office, stealing guns. (BBC Monitoring Africa, 11/2/2005, “Tanzania: Pemba residents reportedly raid police station, steal gun”)
Nov 25, 2005 Police arrested CUF leader, Mohammed Abdulrahman Dedesi, charging him with making inflammatory remarks after he accused the government of rigging the recent elections. (BBC Monitoring Africa, 11/26/2005, “Zanzibar police arrest opposition leader”)
Dec 15, 2005 Police fired into a crowd protesting alleged fake voters voting in the Union’s elections on the Zanzibar islands. Police also arrested protesters and CUF members. (BBC Monitoring Africa, 12/15/2005, “"No serious casualties" reported during polling in Zanzibar”)

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Information current as of July 16, 2010