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Minorities At Risk Project: Home    

Chronology for Issaq in Somalia

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Date(s) Item
1927 Italy finalized its control over the southern Somali region, including both the coastal and inland areas.
1941 All of Somalia came under British control. Italy renounced its claims to the colony in 1947.
1950 The former Italian Somalia became a U.N. Trust Territory and was placed under Italian administration for a ten-year transitional period prior to independence.
Jun 26, 1960 Somaliland was granted independence by the British.
Jul 1, 1960 Somalia (south) and Somaliland (north) are united to form the Somali Republic. Aden Abdulla Osman is named president.
Dec 1961 Northern rebels stage a short-lived and abortive coup.
Oct 15, 1969 President Shirmake was assassinated as a result of a factional quarrel. The assembly was preparing to elect a new president supported by Prime Minister Muhammad Ibrahim Egal when the army took over in a bloodless coup.
Oct 21, 1969 Mohamed Siad Barre assumed the title of President after the bloodless coup. He changed the name of the country to Somali Democratic Republic.
1976 The Somali Revolutionary Socialist Party was established under Soviet influence.
1977 - 1978 Ogaden War-Siad Barre invaded Ethiopia for strategic reasons (both had an interest in Djibouti's port; Somalia fought to obtain Ethiopian territory (Ogaden) which is populated by ethnic Somalis). Somalia was defeated and broke its ties with the Soviet Union over its support of Ethiopia in the war. His defeat in the war severely weakened Siad Barre's regime. In the following years, Ethiopia continued to face guerrilla movements, and hundreds of thousands of refugees fled to Somalia. Western relief (food aid) became a major part of Somalia's economy.
Apr 1981 The SNM (Somali National Movement), a rebel group opposed to Siad Barre's regime was formed in London by 400-500 Issaq exiles. It drew the majority of its support from the Issaq clan in the North. In the early 1980s, civil war broke out in Somalia with the SNM fighting the regime in the North and the SSDF (Somali Salvation Democratic Front) fighting in the South. Fighting continued throughout the 1980s.
1982 - 1987 The SNM began guerrilla operations in 1982 and continued to wage sporadic attacks against the government throughout the mid-190s. SNM's operations were concentrated in Northern Somalia. Other opposition groups based in Southern clans operated in the South.
Nov 1 - 20, 1984 Siad Barre concentrated his power when the National Assembly transferred all its power to the president.
May 1988 The SNM uprising began. Northern Issaq people were frustrated with Siad Barre's preferential treatment of his own ethnic clan and they also felt a sense of economic injustice against the Northern region. They attacked Siad Barre's troops in Burao. In retaliation, Siad Barre orchestrated the massacre of young men in various villages in the North and completely destroyed entire cities and villages. Many townspeople in the capital and other areas fled to Ethiopia. Government troops also attacked civilian refugees as they fled the area and planted thousands of land mines.
1989 Two additional rebel groups, the Somali Patriotic Movement (Ogadeni clan) and the United Somali Congress (Hawiye clan), began offensives again Siad Barre's troops. In early 1989, Hawiye notables established the United Somali Congress (USC) in Rome with Gen. Mohamed Farah Aideed as its head. In August, Siad Barre announced that opposition groups could contest the elections scheduled for 1990.
Jun 1990 The Hawiye opposition published a manifesto calling for the resignation of Siad Barre (he is of the Marehan clan). He responded by arresting a number of the manifesto's signatories. By the end of the year, Siad Barre had support only in the capital Mogadishu and the rest of the country was plagued by factional fighting.
Jan 27, 1991 Siad Barre was ousted from power after 21 years of autocratic rule in Somalia. The USC announced that it had assumed control of the country. Shortly thereafter, civil war again broke out with fighting occurring between clans. Africa Watch estimated that 50,000 people, mainly civilians, were killed in Somaliland between 1988 and 1991. One source claims 500,000 people fled to Ethiopia and an additional 400,000 refugees were internally displaced. Fighting for control of the southern capital, Mogadishu, began in early January.
May 18, 1991 Somaliland proclaimed itself the "Independent Republic of Somaliland." Relative peace and stability were evident in the region. Scores of NGOs began providing assistance.
Jun 4, 1991 An interim cabinet was announced for Somaliland with members of the Issaq clan dominating the appointments. Abdurhaman Ali Tour is named interim head of the cabinet. He was sworn in as president 7 June 1991.
Jan 1992 Clan fighting between two Issaq sub-clans broke out in Burao and later in Berbera. Hundreds were reportedly killed.
Apr 1992 Conditions in Somaliland deteriorated over the past few months after a fairly peaceful year following the overthrow of Mohamed Siad Barre in January 1991. There is some clan-based opposition to the government of Abdurhaman Ali Tour, popular frustration over his poorly-functioning administration, and a fear that the situation could turn into the violent anarchy prevailing in the south.
Oct 1992 Clan elders negotiated an end to clashes between rival Issaq factions in Somaliland. This was the turning point in the transition to peace in Somaliland which had been devastated by years of civil war during which the people of Somaliland fought Mohammed Siad Barre's regime. The clan elders gained power in Somaliland because of the factional split within the SNM.
Apr 23, 1993 The Somaliland government issued a statement supporting the agreement of Somali factions to make peace in their country. It rejected provisions of the agreement (Addis Ababa Agreement) which pertain to Somaliland, stating that any part of the agreement that supposedly pertains to Somaliland is both unwarranted and provocative.
May 5, 1993 Mohamed Ibrahim Egal was elected president of Somaliland. He was the architect of the union that joined the British Somaliland to the Italian Somalia in 1960. He later served as prime minister of Somalia from 1967-1969.
Sep 18, 1993 President Egal ordered UNOSOM (United Nations Operation in Somalia) forces to leave Somaliland, claiming they had interfered in the internal affairs of the state.
Sep 26, 1993 The parliament of Somaliland approved the members of the government council for a two year transition period.
Oct 18, 1993 OAU Secretary-General Salim stated that the OAU does not recognize an independent Somaliland. He said the fate of all Somalia must be decided in a peaceful atmosphere by all Somali people.
Mar 30, 1994 Fighting broke out between rival clan militias in Somaliland. Troops loyal to President Egal were attacked by militiamen of the Idagale sub-clan of Garhajis. The Garhajis alliance is led by former president Abdurahman Ali Tour. He declared all-out war in Burao earlier this month. The Issaq are split between the Habr Awal clan which supports Egal's government and the Habr Yunis alliance which supports the former president.
Apr 30, 1994 Former president Abdurahman Ali Tour denounced the independence of Somaliland and declared his support for a united Somalia.
Jun 1994 A Clan Conference of the Habr Yunis rejected Egal's government. They claimed that Egal's cabinet was set up to foment clan rivalry and that the assembly seats had been unjustly distributed.
Aug 27, 1994 The airport at Hargeisa was closed for security reasons.
Sep 30, 1994 Somaliland President Egal met with the Arab League's Secretary-General to plead for diplomatic recognition for Somaliland. The Arab League dismissed the possibility of extending diplomatic recognition, preferring the unity of Somalia.
Oct 1994 Fighting broke out in Somaliland between forces loyal to President Egal and rebels when the government troops expelled the rebels from the airport around Hargeisa. Two months of sporadic clashes followed. Much of the opposition to Egal since he took office in May 1993 has come from members of the Garhajis sub-clan of the Issaq clan family.
Nov 14, 1994 The Sultan of the Idagal subclan accused President Egal of tribalism and claimed his force was the only legitimate armed force in the Hargeisa region. The Idagal are the majority in Hargeisa.
Dec 2, 1994 President Egal declared a state of emergency in Somaliland.
Jan 1995 Former Somali dictator Mohamed Siad Barre died.
Feb 20, 1995 A 42 man delegation of the Abdullah Issaq subclan was sent to the government of Egal to give up their weapons. Leaders of the subclan said they were dismayed by their role in the recent armed clashes in and around Hargeisa and that they supported a united Somaliland.
Apr 17, 1995 An Anti-Somaliland gang launched an attack against civilians and government troops in Burco. By the end of the month, government forces had repelled the rebels. Behind the offensive against the government's troops appears to be a recent alliance between the Garhajis militiamen and Issa militiamen belonging to the United Somali Front.
May 25, 1995 Leaders of an anti-Somaliland group are to be tried for treason. Recent fighting around the town of Burao is believed to have caused hundreds of casualties. The government has consistently couched the recent fighting in terms of independents vs. federalists, whereas outsiders claim the fighting to be clan-based.
Jun 17, 1995 Vice President Abd al-Rahman Aw Ali Farah of Somaliland said that the proclamation of Aideed as President of Somalia was of no interest to Somaliland which has been independent of Somalia since May 1991.
Aug 1995 Gen. Jama Mohamed Ghilib of the Eidagalle subclan and Somaliland's first president Ahmed Ali Tour attempted an attack on Hargeisa. The attack was repelled and both men deserted to Somalia and joined Mohamed Farah Aydeed's militia. They were later tried in absentia for high treason. Aydeed had been aiding the Habr Yunis/Eidagalle militia in Somaliland. (Writenet)
Aug 10, 1995 Rebel Issa militias and the Somaliland army loyal to President Egal clash at Tokhoshi, 20 km from the Djibouti border. Issa nomads are fighting for regional autonomy. The three main clans that live in this border region are the Issa, Issaq and the Gadaboursy, and President Egal is trying to set up a power-sharing administration among the three clans.
Aug 15, 1995 Troops loyal to President Egal clash with rebels in southwestern Burao immediately breaking rebel lines. Fighting began last month between government forces and Issaq rebels from the Somali National Movement.
Aug 25, 1995 The Republic of Somaliland's constitution drafting committee has met to divide itself into sub-committees to deal with different dimensions of drafting the new constitution. (BBC)
Oct 28, 1995 According to the defense ministry, President Egal's troops killed 35 opposition militiamen (Issa) when they attacked an army position at Jidhi village. The Somaliland radio broadcast said Egal's forces had seized large amounts of arms and equipment. Six fighters were captured and one government soldier were killed. (Reuters)
Dec 3, 1995 Somaliland radio announced that President Egal met with a delegation of UNDP and other related agencies. The delegation was headed by Erling Desau, the UNDP head in Somalia. President Egal told the delegation he was unhappy with the lack of international recognition for his government and urged the UN to push for that recognition. He also suggested that he would have nothing to do with the warlords in the South and that he was uncompromising in his stand on the independence of Somaliland. (BBC)
Jan 16, 1996 More than 59 people were killed and as many as 130 wounded when serious fighting broke out in Burco between forces loyal to President Egal and those supporting Ali Tour. Independent sources indicate that the city was abandoned and had become a no man's land controlled by freelance looters. Dozens of families were thought to be starving in villages surrounding Burco after fleeing without food, water or shelter. Peace negotiation efforts continued in the region. (Xinhua News Agency).
Jan 19, 1996 At least ten people were killed and 17 wounded in fighting in Hargeisa between government troops and forces loyal to Ali Tur (Somali National Movement which is supported by Mohamed Farah Aydeed). There is growing fear that aid agencies will desert Hargeisa and move towards Borame District which lies along the border with Ethiopia. (Xinhua News Agency)
Feb 1996 According to the State Department's Country Reports on Human Rights Practices for 1995, fighting in Burao between forces loyal to President Egal and those of rival militias led to hundreds of deaths as well as significant displacement of people (80-150,000 were forced to flee their homes to escape the fighting). The International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) was permitted to visit and verify that 534 prisoners of war held by Somaliland as well as prisoners held by the opposition militias were well-treated.
Feb 12, 1996 Eight loyalist fighters were killed and ten wounded in clashes between rebels and soldiers in Burao(Burco) which lies 100 miles East of Hargeisa. According to defense minister A.H. Iman, the violence started after members of the Habr Yunis sub-clan launched an assault. Iman said attempts to clear the rebels from Burao were hampered by land mines and the lack of mine-clearing equipment. (Reuters) Fighting died down during the Spring without any formal peace negotiations. Rebels later lost support with the death of Mohamed Farah Aydeed in August 1996, and the country once again became relatively stable and peaceful. (Writenet)
Mar 13, 1996 The Council of Representatives' committee to prepare the Somaliland constitution presented the first copy of the new constitution to the council and people. (BBC)
May 19, 1996 Somaliland marked 5 years of independence with a military parade. President Egal condemned the violence which has torn Somalia apart and violent opposition groups who want to overthrow him and unite with Somalia. The German aid agency GTZ said three of its workers were kidnaped by gunmen. Negotiations were being held between villagers and the kidnappers for their release. (Reuters)
Jun 12, 1996 Three were killed and four injured when bandits attacked a World Food Programme convoy near the capital Hargeisa. Local clan elders were meeting the attackers to prevent further violence. (Reuters)
Jun 18, 1996 According to a recent United Nations report, the communities of Burco agreed to accept peace and the Haber Tjaelo and Habr Yunis Sub-clans would hold peace meetings in July. (UNHCR)
Jul 15, 1996 Eleven were killed and 22 wounded in clan fighting in Somaliland. (Reuters)
Aug 1, 1996 Clan fighting took 23 lives and left 30 others wounded. Members of the Idagale (Eidagalle) and Abdalla Isahaq sub-clans of the Garhajis clan, which have been fighting since May, clashed near Qoton, 25 miles SE of Hargeisa. (Reuters) Mohamad Farah Aydeed died from a heart attack after being wounded days earlier in an assassination attempt. His son vowed to "exterminate" his father's enemies and launched new attacks even as other sub-clans called a cease-fire. (The Economist)
Oct 5, 1996 The U.N. announced it would begin repatriation of 10,000 Somali refugees in Ethiopia. It expected to repatriate 46,000 by the end of the year. They are among 280,000 refugees in Ethiopia and come from the Teferiber, Darwanaji, and Hartisheik camps close to the Somaliland border. (Reuters)
Oct 16, 1996 Somalia's three main faction leaders announced a sweeping new peace deal. It includes a cease-fire, the opening of all territory, and an agreement to help humanitarian aid reach the needy. Faction leaders Hussein Aideed (Somali National Alliance), Osman Ali Ato (SNA faction disenchanted with Aideed), and Ali Mahdi Mohamed (Somali Salvation Alliance) met under the guidance of Kenyan President Daniel arap Moi. Previous attempts to broker peace have failed. Somaliland president Mohamed Ibrahim Egal was not involved in the peace deal, but has kept in touch with the faction leaders.
Jan 19, 1997 Somaliland appealed for urgent assistance to counter the drought that was affecting large areas of the Horn of Africa. (Reuters) U.N. officials meeting in Hargeisa last week also called for urgent assistance to counter the drought which has dried wells and boreholes and destroyed grazing areas. Last fall, the Intergovernmental Authority on Development highlighted the precarious food situation in the region. The UN High Commissioner for Refugees office announced the planned repatriation to Somaliland of 10,000 refugees living in Ethiopia. The agency said it is organizing a program to return 100,000 Somali refugees to their homes in 1997. There are about 400,000 Somali refugees living in Ehtiopia, Kenya, Djibouti and Yemen.
Jan 24, 1997 Somaliland radio reported that a U.S. delegation toured local government headquarters and press buildings. The delegation was on a fact-finding mission reportedly praised the stability and security prevailing in the country and saw the efforts of the people and their government to develop and reconstruct their economy. (BBC)
Feb 23, 1997 Mohamad Egal was reelected president of the Somaliland Republic gaining 223 of 315 votes in the National Communities Conference which acted as an electoral college. The presidence is a five year term. It is to be the last election using the National Communities Conference. A new constitution, which has been approved by the Conference, allows for universal adult suffrage. The government and opposition forces have reached an agreement to end a long period of conflict with members of the opposition being merged into the Somaliland armed forces. The new political climate has also sparked a return of refugees from Ethiopia. Egal continued to criticize the international community for failing to recognize Somaliland's independence and to reject appeals for the reunification of Somaliland with the rest of Somalia. (Reuters)
Mar 1997 Twenty-four people and large numbers of livestock have died as a result of a prolonged drought in eastern Sanaag. People in eastern Somaliland are faced with severe water shortages and are in need of emergency aid to save them and their animals. There is drought in most regions of the country, and President Egal has appealed for international assistance.
Apr 26, 1997 The OAU announced it would contribute $430,000 from its Peace Fund to assist in the implementation of provisions of the Somali peace process. The 41-member National Salvation Council, headed by five co-chairmen was established in Somalia in January by 26 factions after four weeks of negotiations. The peace process was boycotted by Hussein Muhammed Aydeed who controls much of South Mogadishu and Ibrahim Egal, president of the self-proclaimed Republic of Somaliland. Both men maintained their governments had a mandate to run the areas under their control. (BBC)
May 17, 1997 The new government of President has yet to be completed. To date he has named only four ministers. None of these come from Egal's Habre Awal/Issa Moussa clan and the president is known for not fussing over clan questions in running the country. Yet, he also is criticized for a system of "clientelism" which includes dipping into the public till at a rate that critics say threatens the national economy. Further, many believe that Egal bought his election in February. (Indian Ocean Newsletter)
Aug 6, 1997 A new United Nations envoy, Ismat Kittani, has been touring Somalia to assess the situation in the country. Kittani will also visit Hargeisa.
Sep 9, 1997 Ahmed Ali Tur went to Hargeisa to call for a federal system of government in Somalia. He left 23 Spetember for his home in Mogadishu after hearing that a 24 hour deportation order had been issued by President Egal.
Oct 12, 1997 Somaliland armed forces were placed on alert following reports of armed groups recruited around Sool in the East. Until last month when a series of incidents were reported, the region had not previously created any trouble for Hargeisa. Ethiopia has agreed to sign a bilateral security agreement with Hargeisa. Though Ethiopia supports a peace process that would lead to the reintegration of Somaliland into Somalia, this agreement is another step towards de facto recognition of Somaliland's independence. Most of Ethiopia's security concerns come from southern Somalia, and it has had good relations with Somaliland since its self-declared independence.
Nov 1997 Indian Ocean Newsletter has reported that Djibouti officially recognized Somaliland following a mission to Hargeisa headed by Djama Mahamoud Haid, governor of the Central Bank. This was not independently confirmed by other press services. A large delegation of Issaq from Djibouti went to Somaliland and presented President Egal with the results of meetings between Issaq and Issa of Djibouti. The meetings outlined an agreement by which the Djibouti government undertook to officially recognize Somaliland. In return, Somaliland undertook to collaborate in the repatriation of some 20,000 Issa refugees living in Djibouti. Somaliland then openend its first diplomatice mission abroad. Members of the Gadaboursi subclan protested to the Vice President, also of this subclan, against the Issa refugees being settled in Somaliland along the Djibouti frontier. To quiet the protests, Issa dignitaries in Djibouti are believed to have promised to the largest Gadaboursi group, the Mohamed Assi) a government ministerial post presently held by a Gadaboursi belonging to the Makahil clan.
Dec 1997 The Somali National Movement, a guerrilla organization which fought against Siad Barre, has sprung to life as a civil opponent to Egal's regime. Egal has been accused of corruption and in recent months he has tried to suppress the free press. He resigned from his post this month in an attempt to free himself from criticism. However, his resignation was seen as political blackmail because he knew the opposition could not unify to field a candidate to replace him. He was later reelected to the presidency in February 1998. An accord was signed between Somalia's top two warlords setting up a federal state and transitional government. The Cairo accord was rejected by two other faction leaders, Col. Yuffus and Gen Abdalla Nur, both of whom are members of the presidential council of the National Salvation Council. Under the Cairo accord, three groups, the Darood of the southwest and northeast, the Digil Mirifle of the northwest, and the Hawiye of Mogadishu and the southwest, will be represented by 60 delegates each. The two most powerful warlords, Ali Mahdi Mohammed and Hussein Aideed, will have 80 delegates each. The Issaq of Somaliland are to have 90 delegates, but Ibrahim Egal, president of Somaliland, refused to join in the peace talks. Thirty-five other seats will go to other minorities. It is unlikely the accords will bring about a reconciliation in Somalia, especially since Somaliland wants no part of a peace agreement which reintegrates it into greater Somalia.
Jan 1998 Torrential rains since November have led to flooding in some regions of Somaliland. Dozens of families have been left homeless, and malaria, cholera, and other water-born diseases are on the rise.
Feb 1998 President Egal's tour of Ethiopia, France, and Italy has confirmed the trend to grant de facto diplomatic recognition to Somaliland. Italy said it would be willing to back a proposal with the EU for "semi-diplomatic" recognition which would give Somaliland a status of "international existence" and allow it to access bilateral and multilateral financial assistance. Eritrea has agreed to an informal exchange of "ambassadors" with Hargeisa and is backing a proposal to invite a representative of Somaliland to the next meeting of the Intergovernmental Authority on Development in Djibouti. The UN has also agreed to give Somaliland the status of observer. Egypt and the Arab League are firm in their stand against autonomy for Somaliland.
Apr 1998 Somaliland has signed an agreement with international companies to rehabilitate and reconstruct power stations in the country. President Egal remarked that the deals were "more than political recognition."
May 1998 Ethiopia, without granting official recognition, gave Somaliland permission to open a diplomatic mission in Addis Ababa and will reciprocate with its own mission in Hargeisa.
May 19, 1998 In celebrating 8 years of independence, President Egal reaffirmed that he had no intention of reuniting with Somalia. Somaliland has remained relatively peaceful since 1996 after Egal negotiated peace with rivals. However, two subclans, the Dulbahanti and Warsangali of the Darood clan, have expressed their willingness to rejoin Somalia. Some of their members are currently serving in Egal's government.
Jun 10, 1998 Somali factions allied with Hussein Aideed condemned the recent diplomatic rapprochement between Ethiopia and Somaliland. Faction leaders, including those of Ali Tur's Somali National Movement, the Somali Democratic Alliance, and the United Somali Front, also accused Ethiopia of supplying large amounts of military weapons, ammunition, and uniforms to the secessionist regime of President Egal.
Oct 14, 1998 President Egal sent a peace mission to Laascaanood town in Sool Region, southern Somaliland. Before leaving, members of the mission met Egal and discussed with him events in Laascaanood and the best means to settle them. The mission was sent to reconcile two communities who had been fighting following the killing of local leaders. (The British Broadcasting Corporation)
Feb 15, 1999 According to a United Nations report, famine could spread in Somaliland unless efforts were intensified to ensure adequate seed distribution to revitalize local food production. Somaliland has also suffered from a shortage of water for livestock and human consumption. (Africa News Service, Inc.)
Oct 6, 1999 Tens of thousands of Somalis gathered in major towns and cities, including Mogadishu, in a concerted attempt to put peace and national reconciliation back on the agenda. This sign of popular support amongst Somali civil society was also seen as an endorsement of recent proposals put forward by the president of Djibouti. He is advocating for a national reconciliation conference which would have clan representation but exclude those associated with violence. (Africa News Service,Inc)
Nov 4, 1999 The food supply situation in southern Somalia gave cause for serious concern following an upsurge in inter-clan fighting which disrupted food production activities and assistance to civil war and drought victims. Mounting civilian casualties, destruction of property, large-scale, and a number of starvation-related deaths have been reported. The crisis has been exacerbated by the presence of roadblocks and the obstruction of runways which prevent the movement of food and other goods. Reports indicated that nearly 1.6 million people in Mogadishu, Lower and Middle Juba, parts of Gedo and Lower Shabelle were not accessible to humanitarian agencies. The escalation of violence against humanitarian workers further reduced the flow and distribution of humanitarian assistance. (Africa News Service Inc)
Nov 5, 1999 The U.N.'s Food and Agriculture Organisation announced that it was seriously concerned over the food supply situation in southern Somalia following an upsurge in inter-clan fighting which disrupted food production activities. (Deutsche Presse-Agentur)
Nov 18, 1999 President Egal and his delegation were greeted in Boorama, northwest Somaliland, with demonstrations and protests by a huge group of local residents. The protesters were led by Mrs Raqiyah Aw Ali, a former Somaliland presidential candidate. The group was reportedly opposed to the secession of Somaliland from the rest of Somalia. (The British Broadcasting Corporation)
Nov 19, 1999 Several Somiland political leaders, including Abd al-Rahman Ahmad Ali (Tour) former Somaliland president, Muhammad Farah Abdullahi (Hasharo), Gen Jama Muhammad Ghalib and Husayn Elabeh Faniyeh, issued a joint press statement yesterday on President Muhammad Ibrahim Egal's visit to Boorama town expressing their strong support for the people who protested against President Egal and his delegation. (The British Broadcasting Corporation)
Dec 15, 1999 Police in Boorama arrested five following demonstrations organized to protest President Egal's visit. The police did not officially disclose the reasons for the detentions. Both the Boorama police chief and the district magistrate declined to comment on the matter. (The British Broadcasting Corporation)


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Information current as of January 10, 2007