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Minorities At Risk Project: Home    

Chronology for Europeans in South Africa

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Date(s) Item
1602 The Dutch East India Company was established.
Apr 1652 A victualling station for the Dutch East India Company was established on the Cape. This was the first permanent white settlement in South Africa.
1659 The first war between the Dutch and the native Khoi-Khoi. Peace was established by 1660, but the Khoi-Khoi had lost their land on the peninsula.
1688 French Huguenot settlers arrived on the Cape.
1691 - 1700 The Trek farmer movement started as a result of inadequate markets for their agricultural goods. This began the expansionist movement in South Africa by white settlers.
1709 Pass Laws were implemented. All slaves were required to carry them. The laws were later extended to the Khoi-Khoi until 1828 when "Coloreds" were no longer required to carry them. They remained in force for blacks, however, until the late 20th century.
1795 - 1803 First British occupation of the Cape.
1799 - 1802 The great Khoi-Khoi rebellion took place. The rebellion was unsuccessful.
1803 - 1806 The Cape was governed by the Netherlands under Napoleon.
1806 The second British occupation of the Cape.
1807 The British abolished slavery.
1811 - 1812 Twenty thousand Africans, mainly Xhosa, were expelled from the Zuurveld in the Eastern portion of the Cape. Prior to this date, there had been skirmishes between the Europeans and the Africans, but the Africans were able to maintain their position.
Jan 1 - Dec 13, 1814 The Cape was ceded to Britain by the Netherlands. The British established a much stronger and more efficient colony.
1820 5000 British settlers arrived.
1828 Ordinance 50 was established which put free blacks on equal political footing with whites. This became one of the incentives for the Great Trek because the Boers were not content with the British efforts at reforming South African society.
Dec 1, 1834 - Dec 31, 1824 Slavery was abolished on the Cape. Exploratory parties scouted the interior.
1838 - 1843 Voortrekkers governed their own Republic of Natalia.
1843 Natal was proclaimed a British Colony.
1852 Britain recognized the independence of Boers in Transvaal.
1854 The British recognized the independence of the Orange Free State.
1856 A Zulu civil war broke out over who would rule on the death of Mpandi. Death and famine occur among Xhosa after the slaughter of their cattle. The Xhosa slaughtered their own cattle on the recommendation of a seer who said if they do so, prosperity would come to them. Twenty thousand starved to death, others fled to towns where their incorporation into the colonial economy was sped up.
1860 The first Indian indentured laborers arrived in Natal.
1867 Discovery of diamonds. By 1870, some 10,000 diggers descended on the Vaal River near Kimberly and a Digger Republic was formed.
1871 The British annexed the diamond fields. By this time, four republics have been established Cape Colony and Natal were British colonies; Orange Free State and the South African Republic were Boers states which struggled to remain independent of Britain.
1879 Anglo-Zulu war resulted when the Zulus resisted a demand that their military system be abolished. They were soon defeated and their leader was exiled. Their territory was not annexed until 1887. Anglo-Pedi War occured after the Zulus were defeated. The British ended Pedi (a small Sotho group in Southwest Transvaal) independence.
1880 First Anglo-Boer War, or the Transvaal War of Independence. It ended in the British giving Transvaal independence subject to the "suzerainty of Her Majesty."
1885 Legislation barring Indians from citizenship and property rights was passed. The legislation also provided that they live in separate areas set aside for them.
1887 Zululand was proclaimed British territory and the King was deported to St. Helena.
1890 The British South Africa Company was established in the Cape. Cecil Rhodes, the founder, became Prime Minister.
1893 - 1914 Gandhi became a spokesman for the middle class Indians in South Africa. He formed the Natal Indian Congress and led an unsuccessful protest against legislation barring Indians from voting.
1899 - 1902 Second Anglo-Boer War. The Boers were defeated and the Orange Free State was annexed in May 1900 and Transvaal in September 1900.
1903 - 1907 More than 63,000 Chinese laborers were brought in to work the mines.
1910 The Union of South Africa was inaugurated.
1912 The South African Native National Congress (SANNC) was established.
1913 The Native Lands Act was passed. It limited land ownership by blacks, including ownership of traditional tribal territory.
1914 The National Party was formed. SANNC representatives visited London in protest over the Native Lands Act.
1920 The first version of Inkatha, the Zulu cultural movement, was launched.
1921 The Communist Party of South Africa (SACP) was formed.
1923 The Native Act extended segregation to cities and affirmed that blacks are not permanent residents in urban areas. SANNC changed its name to the African National Congress (ANC).
1925 Afrikaans was recognized as the official language.
1927 Compulsory segregation was announced in 26 urban areas. The Native Administration Act extended recognition to chiefs and formed the basis for decentralizing authority in African reserves. Sixty-four black residential acts were proclaimed. Several acts restricting black rights were established in the 1920s.
Dec 1931 A pass-burning campaign led to violence in Durban.
1936 The Native Trust and Land Act was passed to increase land for blacks to 13% of the total surface area of the country.
1943 A group of black leaders formulated political demands in "African Claims in South Africa." Coloreds joined ranks with the All-African Convention to form a Non-European Unitary Movement. The Trading and Occupation of Land Act placed severe restrictions on where Indians could work and reside.
1944 The first mass movement of urban squatters occurred. James Mpanza led homeless Africans to vacant ground in Orlando, later part of Soweto. Many Africans became squatters when their land was taken from them by whites and they were forced to pay rent to live there or use the land.
1948 The National Party won elections for the first time on a platform of Afrikaner nationalism. This began the apartheid phase of South African history which was characterized by a separation of races through a program of separate development. Apartheid policies were formulated over the next decades and included the passage of legislation which legally separated whites from other ethnicities (see 1949-1951 below).
1949 Prohibition of Mixed Marriages Act passed.
1950 Group Areas Act (allowed the government to move people into new areas based on their race), Population Registration Act (provided for racial classification on a national register), Immorality Amendment Act (prohibited sexual relations between people of different races), and Suppression of Communism Act were passed by the South African Government. The Communist Party went underground.
1951 Bantu Authorities Act (prepared the way for a new system of local and regional government, which modified the old councils, in the reserves) passed. The Separate Representation of Voters Act was passed in an attempt to prevent Coloreds from voting with whites. The latter Act was ruled invalid in 1952.
1952 The ANC launched a countrywide defiance campaign. Widespread riots resulted leading to the passing of the Safety Act and the Law Amendment Act. All blacks over age 16 were then required to produce a pass on request by police or administrators or face jail.
May 1953 Liberal Party was formed. It was a non-racial party which stands for the rule of law and equal rights for all in a democratic state. It was dissolved in 1968.
Feb 1956 Removal of Colored voters from the common roll.
1959 The Pan Africanist Congress (PAC) was founded under Robert Sobukwe. The Progressive Party was founded under Jan Steytler.
1960 Representation for blacks in parliament was abolished. In March, police opened fire on protestors (protesting pass laws) in Sharpeville killing 69 people. In April the ANC and PAC were officially banned. Their leaders fled to foreign states and they formed militant wings. Twenty-thousand people were detained and there were random assaults on blacks in Cape Town. The Anti-Pass strike was broken and Pass Laws were once again enforced.
May 31, 1961 South Africa left the Commonwealth and became a Republic. Nelson Mandela proposed an armed struggle and 10,000 were detained throughout the year.
1962 Nelson Mandela was arrested on his return from abroad. In November, the U.N. voted for economic and diplomatic sanctions against South Africa because of its apartheid policies.
May 1963 Ninety-day detention without trial was introduced.
Dec 1963 Transkei was granted self-government.
1965 Detention without trial for 180 day periods was introduced.
Oct 1966 The U.K. granted Lesotho independence and it gained international recognition.
1967 Section 6 of the Terrorism Act provided for indefinite detention without trial.
1969 The South African Students' Organization was established to organize students under black leadership. Steven Biko led the movement. It was banned in 1977. Right-wing groups began to form in opposition to the government.
1971 Goodwill Zwelithini was installed as the 8th Zulu Monarch.
1972 The Black People's Convention was formed to coordinate supporters of the Black Consciousness Movement. Africans in "white" areas were brought under Bantu Affairs Administration Boards. The Afrikaner Resistance Movement (AWB) was founded. It is a militant right-wing group which advocates total racial separation.
1976 The Suppression of Communist Act became the Internal Security Act. In the late 1970s, Buthelezi, the Inkatha leader, split with the ANC. Ikatha was seen by Afrikaners as a less radical movement.
Jun 16, 1976 Student protests in Soweto, led by the South African Student Movement (SASM), began. Students were protesting against inequalities of Bantu Education and the introduction of Afrikans as a teaching medium. Adding to the disquiet in Soweto were the government's reluctance to maintain subsidies on vital consumer goods, rising unemployment rates, and urban crowding. The protests lasted over a year and hundreds were killed by police.
Sep 12, 1977 Steven Biko died in police custody. His death heightened world condemnation of South Africa.
Dec 1977 Bophuthatswana became an "independent" homeland.
Oct 1978 Pieter Botha became Prime Minister.
Feb 1 - Dec 31, 1980 Black high school students boycotted classes, especially in the Cape Peninsula. Forty-five were shot by police in the Cape Town area in June violence.
Dec 1981 Ciskei was declared "independent."
1982 Venda was declared "independent." The Conservative Party was created. It became the official opposition in 1987.
1983 A white referendum approved a new constitution. The United Democratic Front (UDF) was founded as an extra-parliamentary opposition group. The Colored Labor Party decided to participate in the tri-cameral parliament. Only 13% of Indians and 18% of Coloreds vote.
1984 - 1986 Period of unrest and instability. A State of Emergency was declared.
1986 The Prohibition of Mixed Marriages Act, the Prohibition of Political Interference Act and section 16 of the Immorality Act were repealed. Pass laws and influx control were abolished.
1989 Botha resigned as Prime Minister and was replaced by F.W. de Klerk. The Separate Amenities Act was repealed. There were mixed-race riots in suburbs around Cape Town. The riots were in protest of elections and in opposition to the puppet vote Coloreds have in parliament.
1990 De Klerk announced the unconditional release of Nelson Mandela and a lifting of the ban on all illegal organizations. Mandela was released February 11. The State of Emergency was lifted. Namibia became independent from South Africa. Violence between traditionalists and non-traditionalists in Natal spread to Johannesburg's townships in July. In the past three years, more than 4000 have died in violence between Xhosa and Zulus in Natal. By December, more than 1000 had died in Johannesburg in the violence. Mixed-race riots occurred in Port Elizabeth.
Jan 1991 ANC leader Mandela met with Inkatha leader Buthelezi over continuing violence in the townships. The ANC and Inkatha have a history of disagreement with many seeing Buthelezi as having sold out to the whites in agreeing to the homelands system. Inkatha members were blamed for the killing of at least 35 ANC supporters who were attending a vigil for an ANC murder victim on 12 January. Inkatha has often been accused by the ANC of fomenting violence to prevent its being marginalized as a political force.
Apr 1991 Violence erupted in several townships between ANC and Inkatha supporters. Relations between the leaders of the two groups worsen, while the ANC appeared to be moving towards a new accommodation with PAC.
May 1991 A conference scheduled by the government on ending township violence was attended by only the IFP, some representatives of minority parties, and the neo-fascist Afrikaner Resistance Movement. The ANC, churches, and main opposition Conservative Party stayed away in protest over Inkatha supporters' carrying of traditional weapons. King Goodwill Zwelithini criticized Mandela at a rally of some 40,000 Inkatha followers. He warned the ANC against verbal attacks on the Zulu and said his people would not give up their traditional weapons.
Jun 5, 1991 Racist restrictions in hundreds of laws, including the entire provisions of the Land Acts of 1913 and 1936, the Group Areas Act, the Development Trust and Land Act and the Black Communities Act were taken off the statute books.
Jun 9, 1991 Buthelezi denied allegations of a former SADF (South African Defense Forces) intelligence major that the SADF had trained Inkatha loyalists to attack ANC supporters. The major said the army's intent was to ensure that "moderates" won in the inevitable multi-racial elections.
Jun 17, 1991 The Population Registration Act, under which South Africans were classified by race, was repealed.
Jul 6, 1991 U.S. President George Bush repealed the CAAA (Comprehensive Anti-Apartheid Act), thereby lifting the bulk of trade and investment sanctions against South Africa.
Jul 19, 1991 The Press began to disclose SAP (police) funding of Inkatha rallies held in November 1989 and March 1990. Minister of Law and Order Adriaan Vlok admitted to covert funding of Inkatha, describing it as non-political. Buthelezi continued to deny knowledge of any payments. In light of these revelations, Mandela renewed calls for an interim government.
Aug 1991 The UDF disbanded declaring that it has fulfilled its major objectives in dismantling apartheid. A bloody confrontation between extremist AWB (Afrikaner Resistance Movement) members and SADF took place when the AWB attempted to interrupt a speech by de Klerk. Three AWB members were killed and 58 were injured including 7 police and 15 black civilians.
Sep 1991 The ANC, IFP (Inkatha Freedom Party), and the government signed a peace accord amid continuing violence. De Klerk continued to call for the demolition of the ANC armed wing Umkhonto we Sizwe (MK). Mandela responded by suggesting the integration of the MK into the SADF. De Klerk also urged the ANC to become a political party which it refused to do until a new constitution allowing for equal rights of all citizens of South Africa was in place.
Oct 1991 The Patriotic Front was formed after a meeting between the ANC, PAC and 90 other groups. This marked PACs entry into the negotiations with the government for complete destruction of apartheid in the country. The military authorities in the nominally independent Ciskei declared a state of emergency to combat ANC "terrorism". The ANC denied the charges and condemned the repressive rule of Ciskei military leader Oupa Gqozo.
Nov 1991 The State of Emergency in Ciskei ended as ANC leaders and Gqozo commit to peace in the region. Seventy-six blacks were killed in clashes between Xhosa and Sotho workers at the President Steyn mine. ANC leader Mandela announced the party must pay more attention to the needs of Coloreds and Indians.
Dec 1991 Progress on the forming of a new Constitution was made with the meeting of the Convention for a Democratic South Africa (Codesa). Two parties were noticeably absent IFP and the Government of Bophuthatswana. During 1991, 2,165 people died in political violence. Exiled ANC leader Oliver Tambo returned to South Africa.
1992 The European Community announced that it will lift economic sanctions against South Africa which have been in place since 1986. A former central committee member of the IFP provided further proof that the IFP and SADF have cooperated in attacks on ANC supporters. The South African Institute of Race Relations reported that the total number of deaths occurring from political violence since 1984 is 11,910.
Mar 17, 1992 A white-only referendum was held to establish that the white community is agreeable to the continuation of the process of dismantling apartheid. Sixty-eight percent of whites said they want the process to continue.
Jun 7, 1992 Zulu king Goodwill Zwelithini married a Xhosa woman in an inter-tribal ceremony.
Jun 17, 1992 Two hundred men went on a rampage in a Boipatong squatter camp. At least 45 people were killed by Inkatha members supported by the police. Boipatong is an ANC stronghold and the ANC withdraws from Codesa in protest and launches a three-month mass action campaign.
Aug 1992 The Communist Party (SACP) split, and some members form the right-wing Afrikaner Volksunie Party (AVU).
Sep 1992 At least 29 people were killed when troops from the Ciskei "homeland" fired on ANC supporters marching towards the Ciskei capital. The ANC and government resumed talks and sign a Record of Understanding. In response, Buthelezi of the IFP, President Mangope of Bophuthatswana, Oupa Gquozo, military leader of Ciskei, the AVU and the CP formed the Concerned South Africans Group (Cosag). Violence continues throughout the year. The first mixed-race mayor is elected in Franschhoek.
Nov 1992 The Goldstone Commission, a judicial inquiry into political violence established in September 1991 released evidence of a "dirty tricks" campaign sanctioned by senior SADF figures against the ANC since its legalization in 1990.
Dec 1992 De Klerk strongly criticized Buthelezi's draft constitution for a new "state of Kwa-Zulu". De Klerk warned that such proposals were incompatible with previous agreements that constitutional reform should be the result of multi-party talks. Separate attacks on whites November 29, December 4 and 9 were claimed by PAC's militant wing, the APLA.
Feb 1993 De Klerk announced major reforms for the Own Affairs system under which the affairs of Whites, Coloreds, and Indians were handled by different departments.
Mar 5, 1993 The multiparty planning conference convened ending an eight-month hiatus in negotiations.
Apr 1993 Talks were disrupted when Chris Hani, Secretary-General of the SACP, is assassinated. A Polish immigrant and CP Member of Parliament were arrested and convicted for his murder. Retired SADF (South African Defense Forces) and SAP (South African Party) generals formed the Afrikaner Volksfront in an attempt to unite the right-wing.
Jun 1993 A tentative date for elections was scheduled (27 April 1994). The CP, IFP and KwaZulu Government formally withdrew from the multi-party negotiations. A group of 500 heavily armed AVF supporters stormed the Johannesburg World Trade Center, attacking black delegates and journalists. After negotiations with the government, they agreed to leave if no arrests are made. The government withheld the right to make later arrests. Yet, by the end of the month, only 25 participants in the attack were arrested.
Jul 1993 Heightened political violence culminated in an attack on a Cape Town church in which gunmen open fire on the congregation leaving 12 dead and 50 injured. Most of the victims were whites. No group claimed responsibility for the attack. A draft constitution was published.
Sep 1993 The Transitional Executive Commission Bill (TEC) and other bills making up the first part of the transitional package, were agreed to by the negotiators. They also finally agreed to draft an interim constitution and an Electoral Bill. Mandela asked countries to lift economic and trade sanctions against South Africa, but asked the arms embargo to remain until a government of national unity was in place after the April 1994 elections.
Oct 1993 The Freedom Alliance, formerly known as Cosag, was formed. It announced the suspension of all bilateral negotiations with the government and the ANC. Its main objective was to negotiate a constitution entrenching the right of self-determination. Eugene Terre-Blanche, leader of the Afrikaner Resistance Movement (AWB) was convicted of charges of public violence arising from his part in an attack on a rally addressed by President de Klerk in August 1991.
Nov 1993 Deaths in political violence reached 3,981 for the year. Delegates to the multi-party negotiations endorsed an Interim Constitution under which South Africa was to be governed for five years after elections in April. The constitution was revised from the one published in July with added concessions to the right-wing Freedom Alliance including allowing regions to draft their own constitutions. The draft was rejected by the Freedom Alliance, though leaders' reactions were not uniform. The multi-party negotiators agreed to repeal Section 29 of the Internal Security Act which allowed for detention without trial. The trial of Oupa Gqozo, military leader of Ciskei, began 9 November. He was charged with murder and incitement of murder in the killing of Lt-Gen. Charles Sebe during a 1991 coup attempt.
Dec 1993 The TEC was installed giving Africans a legal role in the government of South Africa for the first time. Parliament ratified the interim Constitution.
Jan 1994 The ANC and government held talks with the Freedom Alliance (FA) in an effort to persuade the FA to accept the interim constitution and participate in TEC. Ciskei, a member of the FA, announced it will join TEC. PAC announced a suspension of activities by its armed wing, the Azanian People's Liberation Army (APLA). TEC announces that the training of a National Peacekeeping Force will begin on 24 January.
Mar 1994 The FA effectively collapsed after a crisis in Bophuthatswana. Bophuthatswana President Lucas Mangope announced his region would not take part in elections in April. Widespread generalized violence erupted against the Mangope regime. Up to 5000 armed white right-wing extremists rallied around the president vowing to keep the region independent. SADF troops were sent in to restore order and at least 60 people were killed. The TEC removed Mangope from power. The FA, already weakened from the withdrawal of Ciskei, collapsed. The collapse of the FA left Buthelezi increasingly isolated in his opposition to elections.
Mar 31, 1994 De Klerk imposed a State of Emergency in KwaZulu-Natal in anticipation of elections. The Freedom Front, led by Constand Viljoen, claimed that 70-80% of Afrikaners want a separate white homeland.
Apr 25, 1994 A controversial transfer of land to the Zulu king took place just before elections.
Apr 26 - 28, 1994 Multi-racial elections took place for the first time in South Africa. The ANC received almost 63% of the National Assembly vote, followed by the NP (National Party) which received 20.5%, and the IFP which received 8%. In the four years leading up to political reform, up to 20,000 people have died in political violence.
May 10, 1994 Nelson Mandela was chosen president and sworn in. Thabo Mbeki, ANC chairman, was named first deputy president and F.W. de Klerk, leader of the largest opposition party, was named second deputy president.
Jun 1994 Neo-nazi leader Eugene Terre Blanche announced that bombings will continue until whites get a separate homeland. Twenty-one people have been killed in the bombings and his organization, AWB, has a few thousand members.
Sep 1994 King Zwelithini cancelled the Shaka Day festivities in KwaZulu-Natal honoring the warrior king Shaka after Inkatha supporters stormed the royal residence while a meeting between Zwelithini, Mandela and Buthelezi was taking place. Zwelithini has distanced himself in recent months from Buthelezi and rejected his claim to be the hereditary advisor to the king. He appeared to be moving closer to the ANC and the Zulu people are divided in their support. Riots against Mandela's government took place in colored communities. The major issue behind these riots was rent and utility increases in colored communities while in black communities, concessions were granted.
Mar 1995 Coloreds and whites in Ruyterwacht district protested proposed busing of black school children.
May 1995 A secret document preparing an autonomy bid by KwaZulu-Natal was discovered. The plan called for a regional security force, media control and the provincial take-over of licensing, education and civil service.
Jun 1995 The Constitutional Court abolished the death penalty. (Kaleidoscope 6/6/95)
Jun 16, 1995 Mandela visited KwaZulu-Natal to make a bid for peace. His relationship with Buthelezi has completely deteriorated. Increases in violence in the region were seen as a result of Buthelezi's decision to boycott the constitution-writing process and demand international mediation. Buthelezi wanted stronger regional powers guaranteed in the constitution. Violence in the region has killed 1100 since elections in April 1994.
Jul 1995 Local tribal chiefs in KwaZulu-Natal were at the center of the power struggle between Mandela and Buthelezi. Most sided with Buthelezi and intimidate ANC supporters in their villages. They also think the Zulu King is selling out to the ANC.
May 23, 1996 The white-led NP drew the colored vote. The Coloreds make up 60 percent of the Western Cape's population. Also this month, thousands of teachers and parents paralyzed the streets around South Africa's parliament in Cape Town during a demonstration. Teachers were objecting to government plans to cut spending on education in the Western Cape in order to spread education money more evenly among the other provinces. Under apartheid, the Western Cape had received more funding than other areas. (Reuters)
Nov 15, 1996 Pagad was becoming more militant in recent months and had begun to target journalists whom it now regards as the enemy along with drug lords and peddlers. The Muslim-based group warned the media to stop focusing on the role of Qibla, a militant Muslim organization, and how it supports Pagad. (Africa News Service [ANS] & Reuters)
Feb 6, 1997 Bloody riots highlighted grievances of eight colored townships to the southwest of Johannesburg. Police opened fire on crowds with rubber bullets and tear gas. Two deaths and 175 injuries were reported. Riots died down after the Southern Metro Council, which oversees the townships where the riots occurred, had its representatives agree to meet local colored leaders to hear their complaints. The protests, which were mostly organized by the Coloured South Western Joint Civics Association (Sawejoca), were made over rate payments. The council threatened to cut off water and electricity to those who did not pay their bills. The protesters' demands were to have their unpaid service charges written off and to pay only a flat rate, as was done in many black areas. The majority of the protesters were colored. Coloreds have no strong political party of their own. So far, they have mobilized around pressure groups such as Basil Douglas's association or the anti-drug vigilante group Pagad in Cape Town. Pagad has been responsible for street riots in the past. Street clashes occurred in Cape Town in 1996 when anti-drug vigilantes (Coloreds) declared war on local drug dealers. (Reuters 2/7/99; The Daily Telegraph 2/7/97; The Independent [London] 2/7/97)
Feb 14, 1997 The South Western Joint Civics Association led by Basil Douglas said that Coloreds are being discriminated against by a racist, black-dominated government. The association organized the previous week's mass colored stay-away protest in which two people were killed in violence. The dispute over payment arrears for services in Gauteng's impoverished townships was providing a platform for Douglas to air his demand for nationhood. (ANS)
May 4 - 6, 1997 Capetown's most pressing problem is a shortage of low-income housing. Die-Sud Afrikaan had recently come into play in South Africa. It is an extension of Community Outreach Forum (CORE) which was formed in 1996 by Pastor Albern Martens to "provide a haven for reformed gangsters." Pastor Martens was quoted as saying, "the colored people of South Africa should take back the country. We are the only ones that are left out and even the blacks have a say in the country now." According to Pagad national commander Aslan Toeffy, the Die-Sud Afrikaan and CORE are institutions which aim to repress drug smuggling in the Western Cape. (ANS)
Jun 17, 1997 Afrikaner Resistance Movement leader Eugene Terre Blanche was sentenced to six years in prison for the 1996 beating of a black employee discovered eating on the job. He also received a concurrent one-year sentence for unleashing his dogs on a gas station attendant last year. (Kaleidoscope)
Jul 7, 1997 Disgruntled members of the 2300-member South Africa Typographical Union accused their union of racism and asked the Deparment of Labor to deregister it. Their stance is that the constitution is discriminating against blacks and Coloreds. (ANS)
Feb 27, 1998 The U.S. lifted a 35-year arms embargo against South Africa. (Kaleidoscope 2/27/98)
Apr 16, 1998 The ANC's election strategy in the Western Cape was to forge solidarity between blacks and Coloreds in the hopes of wresting power from the NP in 1999 elections. This strategy represents a shift in ANC thinking away from mobilizing racial groups and towards issue-based programs which cut across racial lines such as housing, disease and crime. (ANS)
Jun 4, 1998 Naptosa, the country's second largest teacher's union, announced its intention to strike. SADTU had also announced its intention to strike the previous week. Both unions' membership consisted largely of white and colored teachers and were protesting against the national educational department's teacher rationalization and retrenchment policies. The unions were aggrieved at the termination of services of temporary teachers. (ANS)
Jul 21, 1998 There have been violent clashes between blacks and Coloreds over house ownership. A waiting list used to allocate housing to homeless people in Delft South is at the center of controversy. It is allegedly being exploited by ward councilors and the Delft housing branch. (ANS)
Aug 8, 1998 Gangs have existed in colored working class neighborhoods for decades controlling petty crime and dispensing limited patronage. Today, gangs control major crime, especially drugs, and dispense brutal justice to those who betray or oppose them. (Reuters)
Aug 18, 1998 Recent police statistics were showing heavy urban terrorism occurring in the Cape Flats. Since the beginning of the year, five were killed and eighteen injured by pipe bombs, petrol bombs and hand grenades. Most of the victims were Coloreds. In contrast, victims in Richmond were generally blacks. Safety and Security Minister Sydney Mufamadi met with police officials to discuss providing more anti-violence resources for the area.(ANS)
Sep 16, 1998 Poverty has been given as one reason for the scourge of farm attacks across South Africa. Farm workers are poorest of the poor 38 percent of Coloreds are poor; 61 percent of blacks; and 1 percent of whites. (ANS)
Sep 22, 1998 South Africa sent hundreds of soldiers into Lesotho at the request of Lesotho's Prime Minister Pakalitha Mosisili, who was fearing a coup attempt due to political unrest after last month's elections. Ten South Africans were killed. This incident marked the first time since 1994 that South Africa had militarily become involved with another country. (Kaleidoscope)
Oct 16, 1998 A new land law was set to overturn land relations between the state and 770,000 people living on former "colored reserves" in the Western Cape and surrounding provinces. Similar legislation for former black homelands was still bogged down in consultations. The act would transfer title deeds for 1.7 million hectares of land to twenty-three communities across the Capes and Free State. Each Community was to decide who would benefit from the new land rights. (ANS)
Jun 2, 1999 South Africa held its second democratic elections. Deputy President Thabo Mbeki won, taking Nelson Mandela's place as the nation's president. (AP/Wide World)
Jun 7, 1999 Election results showed that colored voters in the Western Cape are no longer dominated by the predominately Afrikaner New National Party, formerly known as the National Party. The New National Party obtained 53 percent of the Western Cape vote in the 1994 election and 39 percent in 1999. The ANC did relatively better, receiving 33 percent in 1994 and 42 percent in 1999. District election results suggested that mixed-race voters vote ANC in areas where white farmers were still oppressing farm workers and vote Democratic Party in cities where there was a black government. (The New York Times)
Jul 4, 1999 Violent crime in South Africa was resulting in the formation of vigilante groups. South Africans convinced that the police were not brutal enough were becoming active in groups such as Pagad and Mapogo-a-Mathamaga that take it upon themselves to enact their own form of justice. Suspects captured by the groups were often tortured and sometimes killed. President Mbeki announced the formation of an anti-crime unit similar to the FBI and tougher gun controls. South Africa was cited as the world's most violent country outside a war zone. (Denver Rocky Mountain News)
Jul 31, 1999 President Thabo Mbeki was reported as announcing to the Afrikaner League that "the Afrikaner is an African." In stating this, he affirmed his government's commitment to eradicating anti-white and anti-colored discrimination. (BBC)
Sep 22, 1999 Whites liberals criticized the government for intolerance of alternative perspective and said it does not allow the push and pull of democratic debate. Liberals accuse the ANC of supporting government rights over individual rights.(CSM)
Sep 26, 1999 Since 1994, over 700,000 former liberation fighters and black homeland soldiers have been integrated into the military which is now 55% black and 31% white. Racial tensions within the military are observable. Seven white soldiers were killed when a black soldier went on a shooting spree specifically targeting Whites. (NYT)
Jul 3, 2003 - Jul 3, 2005 In a small neighborhood in Gauteng there have been a dozen attacks on white farmers in the past two years, nine of which were fatal. (Sunday Telegraph, 7/3/2005, “Murders foreshadow South African land war Since apartheid, 1,700 farmers have been killed in a brutal land grab that some fear could herald a new Zimbabwe”)
Feb 10, 2004 Mark Scott Crossley, a white farmer was accused of feeding Nelson Shisane, his black worker, to the lions after a the worker was dismissed from his job there. Crossley was later tried and found guilty. (The Times (London), 2/11/2004, “Farmer accused of feeding worker to lions.”)
May 26, 2005 Over 500 Afrikaners marched in the capital of Pretoria to protest changing the city’s name to Tshwane, making the change from an Afrikaner name to that of an African king. FW de Klerk, the last white president of South Africa, also denounced the name change (The Guardian (London), 5/27/2005, “Renaming drive will turn Pretoria into Tshwane”).
Jun 23, 2006 White Rawsonville Rugby Club player Riaan Loots was killed by on-field violence in a match against the exclusively coloured Delicious Rugby Club. Racism between the “white clubs” and “brown clubs” was cited as the reason for the violence. (Africa News, 7/8/2006, “South Africa; Violence, Hatred Taint Cape Rugby”)
Jul 4, 2006 At a rugby game between multiracial Clanwillian Rugby Club and the coloured Delicious Club of Clanwilliam, a spectator ran onto the field with a knife, injuring a player. (Africa News, 7/4/2006, “South Africa; Violent Spectators Halt Rugby Match).
Jul 9, 2006 Marcel Nel, a white farmer was charged with the murder of Sello Pele, an 11-year-old black laborer’s son. Nel claimed he mistook the boy for a dog, but blacks in the community cite racist motives for the murder (The Sunday Telegraph, 7/9/2006, “White farmer stands trial for shooting a black boy he ‘mistook for a dog’ Children go on all fours and bark in protest outside the court in South Africa”).


© 2004 - 2023 • Minorities At Risk Project

Information current as of July 16, 2010