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Minorities At Risk Project: Home    

Chronology for Scheduled Tribes in India

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Date(s) Item
Mar 1990 On March 1, the government of the eastern Indian state of Bihar launched a special drive to enroll 1.2 million scheduled caste (SC) and scheduled tribe (ST) children into school during 1990, an official release said (Xinhua News Service, 03/03/90). The illiteracy rate in Bihar, the second largest state in India with a population of 69 million (1981) is 74%, and is one of the highest in India, but it is especially high among SCs and STs. The central government is also preparing a program of education for all by the year 2000. The goal is to attain universal elementary education. It is estimated that there are 110 million people who are illiterate in the 15-35 age group.
Jun 1990 Prime Minister V.P. Singh in a long letter asked the chief ministers of states to make visits to the sites of atrocities against weaker sections of the people and to galvanize the administration into action. On average 14,000 atrocity cases against the SCs and 3,000 against the STs are registered a year, the PM noted in the letter. The lower castes and backward tribes are officially granted special concessions under the Indian Constitution. Singh argued that liberating the SCs and STs from "agricultural semi-serfdom" through "effective and meaningful land reform measures" should form the corner-stone of a long-term approach to check such crimes (Xinhua News Service, 06/28/90). According to the 1981 census, there are 106 million SC individuals and 53.8 million ST individuals (15.47% and 7.85% of the total population) in India.
Dec 1990 A vitamin A deficiency is widespread in India and in several other developing countries according to a study that included variables such as age, sex, father's educational status, caste, and the number of Vitamin doses. It indicated that there was a higher mortality rate in younger children and in those who belonged to the STs (The Lancet, 12/01/90). A senior government official, the Commissioner for SCs and STs, B.D. Sharma, has challenged Indian policies towards its tribals, arguing that they actually violate their social, cultural and economic rights instead of protecting them. In a letter to the Supreme Court, Sharma said, "The respectability for protecting the poor has often been forgotten by the state in its preoccupation with law and order and with pushing through development" (IPS, 12/20/90). The government claims it has spent millions of dollars in various schemes for the welfare of India's tribals. Referring to the controversial dam projects on the Narmada river that will submerge centuries-old tribal settlements in central India, Sharma says "development projects show scant regard for the interests of tribals". An estimated 11 million people - mostly aborigines - have been displaced over the years by canal and dam projects of which only 2.75 million have been rehabilitated. Most tribals are dependent on agriculture for their livelihood, but the government often refuses to recognize their land rights, as written records are not available. In the face of government and bureaucratic apathy, tribals in Bihar and Madhya Pradesh are agitating for their own state of "Jharkhand". A similar movement has sprung up in the northeastern state of Assam where the Bodo tribals want to establish their own "Bodoland". And in southern India's Andhra Pradesh, tribals organized under Marxist-Leninist principles by the "People's War Group" are running a parallel government in parts of the state.
May 1991 While most national parties have promised more power to women in their manifestos, they have given just over 5% of seats to women for the elections, an analysis of party lists shows. However, candidates from the SCs and STs have been better represented among women candidates fielded by these parties (Press Trust of India, 05/12/91).
Jul 1991 Even as the World Bank team begins to review controversial large dams on the Narmada River in central India, hundreds of tribals who will be displaced by the project have threatened to drown themselves in protest. Since early July, the tribals led by activists of the Narmada Bachao Andolan (NBA, Save the Narmada Movement) have begun a sit-in at the site of the "Sardar Sarovar" dam in western Gujurat state to protest their eviction from villages which will be submerged by the rising river waters over the next few weeks. The NBA has been agitating against the $9 billion dam projects that have been partly funded by the World Bank over the past six years. Dams on the river will flood an estimated 200,000 poor tribals out of their centuries-old homes in the states of Gujurat, western Maharashtra and central Madhya Pradesh. The river waters will also submerge roughly 130,000 hectares of forests, an enormous loss considering the rapid rate at which India's forest cover has been vanishing (IPS, 07/29/91).
Sep 1991 A 15-day "economic blockade" began on September 16 in the tribal areas of Bihar, an eastern Indian state. It was called by the Jharkhand Peoples' Party and the All Jharkhand Students Union to press their demand for a separate state. In total, 450 people were arrested.
Mar 1992 A seven-member national commission on SCs and STs has been established through a constitutional amendment. The commission will report annually on the status of tribal peoples and investigate specific complaints about the deprivation of the rights of SC and STs.
Apr 1992 The Indian government dismissed a report of police tortures, rapes and murders, compiled by Amnesty International which has announced a worldwide initiative to pressure the Delhi government. "Members of the scheduled castes (Dalits) and scheduled tribes (Adivasis), tribal people in north-east India, migrant workers, landless laborers and others who are poor and underprivileged, form the majority of victims of torture, rape and death in custody. Many were never charged", the report says (Manchester Guardian Weekly, 04/05/92).
Jun 1992 The National Convention of SC and ST parliamentarians and legislators attacked the new economic policies of the government and called for its review, but made no mention of the demand for making an SC or ST member the next President of the country. The new economic policy is based on "`market-friendliness' but the market has never been friendly to the scheduled castes and scheduled tribes", the resolution stated (BBC, 06/17/92).
Jul 1992 The largest populated Indian state, Uttar Pradesh, recorded the highest number of 293 killings of people belonging to the SC and STs, followed by Madhya Pradesh with 95 and Rajasthan with 52 during the last financial year (1991-92). As regards the killings of ST people, Madhya Pradesh headed the states with 50, followed by Gujurat (18) and Rajasthan (12), according to a report from the Welfare Ministry (BBC, 07/16/92).
Oct 1992 The All-Jharkhand Students Union (AJSU) and the Jharkhand People's Party (JPP) have threatened to launch a "Quit Jharkhand Movement" from November 15 if the eastern Bihar state government fails to ensure the passage of an amended Jharkhand Autonomous Council (JAC) bill during the proposed special session of the assembly on October 30.
Nov 1992 According to a report of the International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD) titled The State of the World Rural Poverty: An Inquiry into its Causes and Consequences, the situation of the tribal populations represent the "most exploited of all social groups" in India. The report notes that although there are 532 "scheduled tribes" in India making up over 45 million people, they remain subject to the highest degree of "poverty, exploitation, bondage and manipulation" (IPS, 11/23/92).
Feb 1993 The Assam government, the center and the Bodoland movement leaders signed a memorandum to put an end to the Bodo campaign. Under the settlement, a 40-member Bodoland Autonomous Council will be set up to promote the socio-economic and cultural development of the Bodo people.
Apr 1993 Following the meeting of the Prime Minister with the Jharkhand movement leaders, Mr. Shibu Soreng and Mr. Suraj Mandal of the Jharkhand Mukti Morcha (Liberation Front) decided to call off their threatened agitation in Bihar. They agreed to participate as well in a tripartite meeting called by the center.
Oct 1993 The federal government has set up a National Human Rights Commission and asked the states to constitute identical bodies to deal with complaints of human rights violations including allegations of excesses committed by the armed forces. The Commission would be headed by a former Chief Justice of the Supreme Court and have eight members including Chairpersons of national commissions for minorities, SCs and STs.
Nov 1993 About 2,000 people representing various tribes marched in the streets of New Delhi demanding better protection of their traditional life style. One of the protesters stated that they want to be left alone to survive in a traditional way and they want their control of forests, land and other natural resources to be restored (Xinhua News Service, 11/17/93). According to official figures available, the tribespeople in India's southern state of Karnataka alone had increased from 200,000 in 1981 to 1.8 million in 1991. This increase is regarded as another major factor responsible for eroding the identity of the tribespeople as a large number of outsiders have attained the status in order to receive the benefits of STs.
Dec 1993 Nearly 100,000 SC and ST members in India's eastern state of Bihar have taken part in a mass conversion ceremony to Buddhism. The organizers said the main aim of the conversion was to liberate downtrodden Hindus from the bondage of Hinduism.
Feb 1994 Despite constitutional safeguards, the rights of indigenous groups in eastern India are often ignored. There has been encroachment (including by illegal immigrants from Bangladesh) on tribal land in almost all the states of eastern India, and businessmen, flouting the laws, have taken out forest and mineral resources. These violations have given rise to numerous tribal movements including the Jharkhand movement in Bihar and Orissa and the Bodo movement in Assam (US Dept. of State Dispatch, 12/27/93).
Feb 1994 In a speech to Parliament, the Indian President, Shankar Dayal Sharma, indicated that during 1992-93 nearly 1.2 million SC and 800,00 ST families were assisted in crossing the poverty line. Dayal stated that for 1993-94, another 2.7 million SC and 900,000 ST families would be aided. Thirteen educational complexes have also been initiated to promote literacy among tribal females (BBC, 02/23/94).
Mar 1994 A high-level Vietnamese tribal delegation visited India and met with Ram Dhan, the chairman of the National Commission for Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes. The Vietnamese delegation discussed provisions, laws, and policies regarding tribals in India (BBC, 03/01/94).
Jul 1994 A system that would guarantee a 50% representation for scheduled caste and scheduled tribe students in Uttar Pradesh has come into effect. Of the 50%, 2% would be reserved for the scheduled tribes (BBC, 07/18/94).
Sep 1994 Ten people who were protesting against educational quotas for the SCs and STs in Uttar Pradesh were killed by police forces when street protests reportedly turned violent in the towns of Dehradun and Nainital. A curfew has been imposed in the two areas (Inter Press Service, 09/03/94).
Sep 14, 1994 A state sponsored strike in support of job and educational quotas for members of the scheduled tribes and scheduled castes turned violent in Allahabad, Uttar Pradesh. Three people were killed (Inter Press Service, 09/14/94).
Nov 1994 A member of the outlawed People's War Group (PWG) was killed during an encounter with police in Andhra Pradesh (BBC, 11/21/94).
Nov 23, 1994 Police officials indicate that the People's War Group is responsible for a bomb blast at a Congress Party office in southern Andhra Pradesh. More than 20,000 paramilitary troops have been deployed to search for the Maoist rebels. Several other attacks have been reported on law officers and Congress workers during the past few weeks. The PWG opposes state elections to be held later this month; the Congress Party is trying to retain its five-year hold on power (Reuters, 11/23/94).
Nov 23, 1994 A demonstration in the city of Nagpur, Maharashtra by tribal protesters seeking to meet with the state's chief minister Sharad Pawar resulted in the deaths of over 111 people. The majority who were killed were reported to be women and children. The over 40,000 tribal protestors, known as "adivasis", wanted to be recognized as Scheduled Tribes in order to receive job and educational privileges. They are currently considered as part of India's Other Backward Castes (Reuters, 11/23/94).
Nov 24, 1994 A one-day strike called by the People's War Group in Andhra Pradesh led to the closure of banks, shops, and government offices in over one-third of the state. The PWG opposes the holding of state elections (Reuters, 11/24/94).
Nov 24, 1994 India's police forces have been accused of a bias against tribal peoples in light of their response to a demonstration by tribal peoples in Nagpur. The police are alleged to have triggered a stampede that resulted in the deaths of over 111 people. Around 500 people were injured. In the Nagpur region, there are 1.3 million tribal peoples of a population of 7.4 million. The Maharashtra government has ordered a judicial inquiry into the incident (Reuters, 11/24/94).
Nov 25, 1994 A public strike in Nagpur to express sympathy for the over 100 deaths during a demonstration by tribals on November 23 was observed by the majority of the city's population. Ten people, including the strike's organizer were arrested on charges of provoking rioting. Paramilitary units have been brought into Nagpur to prevent any further violence (Los Angeles Times, 11/25/94).
Nov 26, 1994 The son-in-law of Prime Minister Narasimha Rao has been kidnapped by members of the Praja Pratighatna group, a breakaway faction of the People's War Group. The group is demanding a ransom for his release (Xinhua News Agency, 11/26/94).
Nov 29, 1994 Seven policemen were among nine people killed when a lorry they were traveling in blew up after it hit a landmine in southern Andhra Pradesh. Twelve people were injured. Police believe the blast was engineered by the People's War Group. Sixteen people, including 11 commandos, were also killed in a landmine blast on November 26 (Deutsche Presse-Agentur, 11/29/94).
Dec 1994 Ten members of the People's War Group were killed in five different encounters with the police in Andhra Pradesh (BBC, 12/03/94).
Dec 5, 1994 A state government official was wounded in a bomb attack in Andhra Pradesh as voting began for the state assembly. The PWG has vowed to disrupt the voting; many rural voters are expected to stay away due to fear of reprisals from the PWG (Reuters, 12/05/94).
Feb 1995 Up to 49 Naxalites of the outlawed People's War Group surrendered to police in Andhra Pradesh (BBC, 02/02/95).
Feb 24, 1995 Rebels of the PWG are reported to be responsible for beheading an activist of the Congress Party (BBC, 02/24/95).
Jun 1995 India's Parliament has passed legislation to continue reservations for promotion in the government sector for those who belong to the scheduled castes and scheduled tribes (BBC, 06/06/95).
Jun 20, 1995 The chief minister of Andhra Pradesh, N.T. Rama Rao, has lifted the ban on the outlawed People's War Group for three months. The ban was lifted on the condition that the PWG not engage in any violent actions or forcibly collect money from people (BBC, 06/20/95).
Sep 1995 Tribals in the Ranchi district in southern Bihar have blocked roads leading to the Koel Karo hydroelectric scheme. The dam project is expected to displace more than 50,000 residents, about 90% of which are tribals. The tribals have banded to establish the Koel Karo Jan Sangathan (Koel Karo Peoples' Organization) in order to campaign against the power project (Power Asia, 09/04/95).
Nov 1995 The European Union will provide $25 million to support an Indian poverty alleviation project. The project will target 33,000 economically disadvantaged families including those belonging to the scheduled castes and scheduled tribes (Xinhua News Agency, 11/13/95).
Dec 1995 A Maoist guerrilla has been arrested in connection with the assassination of a ruling Congress Party Member of Parliament. A security guard was also killed and two Congress Party workers injured during the attack. Police believe that the People's War Group is responsible; however, the group has not claimed responsibility (UPI, 12/02/95).
Jan 2, 1996 Nine persons, including three villagers, were killed in an encounter between PWG extremists and police at Palakurthy village in Karimnagar District in Andhra Pradesh. Police said the extremists were conducting Praja court (people's court) at Palakurthy village when, on noticing police, they opened fire. In the return fire, six Naxalites and three villagers were killed, and six other villagers were injured. (British Broadcasting Corporation 1/4/96)
Jan 8, 1996 Five Naxalites belonging to Parkal Dalam of People's War Group (PWG), allegedly blew up the house of R. Prakash Reddy, a member of the legislative assembly, at Kesavapuram village in Warangal District in Andhra Pradesh. The Naxalites entered Dalam’s house and planted bombs under a tractor. However, no-one was injured. (British Broadcasting Corporation 1//10/96)
Jan 9, 1996 Five Naxalites, including a wing leader, were killed in an encounter with police in Asravalli Forest area of Warangal District in Andhra Pradesh. The police recovered a "massive quantum of arms and ammunition" besides 30,000 rupees cash from the spot. The encounter came close on the heels of stepped-up Naxalite violence in the state (British Broadcasting Corporation 1/11/96)
Jan 21, 1996 Several hundred members of the Maoist Communist Center (MCC) attacked a police station in the town of Tekari in Bihar, killing seven policemen. The MCC, which had been banned after a 1988 attack which killed 50, was believed to have close links with the PWG.(Tass Russian News Agency 1/22/96)
Apr 3, 1996 In Andhra Pradesh, five extremists were killed in two separate encounters with the police in Nadirabad district. A court building was also blown up. Amongst those killed were four activists of Singhavali Karmika Samakhaya, a frontal outfit of the People's War Group. Another extremist was killed at Khanapur in the same district in an exchange of fire with the police. (British Broadcasting Corporation 4/4/96)
Apr 12, 1996 In its party manifesto, the All India Indira Congress-Tiwari supported the idea of statehood for Pondicherry, Uttarakhand, Vidharbha, Jharkhand, Chattisgarh and Bundelkhand regions, and it suggested that the scheduled castes and scheduled tribes reservation list be revised to include Christians of scheduled caste origin and others who have been seeking inclusion in this list for a long time. (British Broadcasting Corporation 4/12/96)
Apr 14, 1996 Some 25 members of the People's War Group (PWG) stormed an outlying police station in Andhra Pradesh's Godavari district, killing one officer and injuring another, then escaped with 20 rifles and an AK-47 automatic weapon. The raid followed a shootout earlier in Bihar in which six Maoist guerrillas were killed and six police injured in a three-hour firefight, according to the Press Trust of India (PTI). Eleven PWG were arrested in the aftermath. The PWG stepped up its violent campaign ahead of this month's general elections, which it wants voters to boycott. (Agence France Presse 4/15/96)
Apr 21, 1996 A group of 15 People's War Group guerrillas barged into the house of a Telegu Desam Party legislator at Koutaru village in Ananthapur District and snatched away two rifles from bodyguards before blasting the house. The Naxalites asked those inside to come out of the house before attempting to blow it up. In another incident at Paddakkal village in Nizamabad District, a group of 12 PWG extremists armed with explosives and firearms bombed the house of the Congress (I) candidate for Nizamabad. Meanwhile, armed Naxalites attacked a police station at Bodu village in Khammam District and an hour-long fierce exchange of fire ensued. However, there were no casualties on either side. (British Broadcasting Corporation 4/23/96)
Apr 27, 1996 During elections, in Andhra Pradesh, one person was killed in a fight between rival parties, and police shot and killed a militant from the communist People's War Group that had called on landless peasants to boycott the election. Pre-election violence killed at least 30 people, including 25 in Bihar. A police officer was killed and two were injured in a landmine blast set off by militants of the People's War Group in Nizamabad district of Andhra Pradesh.(Gazette Mail 4/28/96 and Agence France Presse 4/30/96)
May 1, 1996 Two activists of the People's War Group were shot dead by police while trying to plant landmines near a village in Warangal district. Thirteen rebels escaped after the 10-minute shootout, but a huge quantity of arms and ammunition was recovered from the site. Some parts of Andhra Pradesh were scheduled to go to the polls later that week. (Agence France Presse 5/1/96)
May 2, 1996 A policeman was killed and three others injured in a landmine blast by People's War Group activists in Nizamabad district. Elections in the area took place that day. (Agence France Presse 5/2/96)
Aug 1996 After Prime Minister H.D. Deve Gowda promised to create "Uttarakhand" on August 15, several other groups revived their calls for independence including tribals in Bihar who revived the old demand for a separate Jharkhand state comprising 18 districts. (British Broadcasting Corporation 9/26/96)
Sep 6, 1996 Authorities from India's Central Bureau of Investigation arrested a member of Parliament and three former members of the Jharkhand Mukti Morcha -- a small, independent tribal party -- on charges of accepting $1 million in secret payments for their support during a 1993 no-confidence vote against then Indian Prime Minister Narasimha Rao. (United Press International 9/6/96)
Oct 7, 1996 Seven policemen were killed and three injured when suspected Maoist extremists set off a mine blast in Andhra Pradesh. The blast destroyed the jeep carrying the 10-member police party to Mulug town in Warangal district for security duty at a meeting addressed by Andhra Pradesh chief minister Chandrababu Naidu. The extremists had expected a police party to head for Mulug because Naidu was in the area to campaign for his regional Telugu Desam Party in by-elections to 11 state legislative assembly constituencies. The PWG had called for a poll boycott. (Deutsche Presse-Agentur 10/7/96)
Nov 15, 1996 Leftist rebels in southern India bombed a police station, killing 12 policemen and a civilian bystander. Just before the bombing, the gang of 30 armed Maoist rebels burst into the home of the local police inspector and shot him to death. (United Press International 11/15/96)
Nov 18, 1996 Police in the southern state of Karnataka have been put on high alert following reports that over 200 activists of the Peoples War Group sneaked into the city to disrupt the 1996 Miss World crowning ceremony.(Deutsche Presse-Agentur 11/18/96). People's War Group guerrillas killed a senior police official and his wife in a landmine blast near Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh. (Agence France Presse 11/18/96)
Jan 10, 1997 Sixty suspected PWG insurgents killed 18 persons including 16 policemen in a gunbattle and fled after bombing a police station in Andhra Pradesh. (Deutsche Presse-Agentur 1/10/97)
Mar 21, 1997 Seven members of the PWG were killed by police in Andhra Pradesh after they opened fire on a police party in Laxmipur village. In the encounter that followed the seven, including a woman, were gunned down, and a huge cache of arms was also recovered from their forest hideout. (Deutsche Presse-Agentur 3/21/97)
Mar 24, 1997 Indian security forces gunned down four members of the PWG in southern Andhra Pradesh. A gunbattle erupted near a village in Medak district overnight when the police stormed a guerrilla hideout. A police officer was injured in the firefight. (Agence France Presse 3/24/97)
Jul 1, 1997 A group of Indian Congress party workers were traveling to a party meeting when members of the outlawed People's War Group triggered a landmine explosion, killing four and injuring several others in Andhra Pradesh. (London Guardian 7/2/97)
Jul 15, 1997 The Indian cabinet extended its ban on the People’s War Group for another year. The ban was due to expire on July 25. (The Hindu 7/16/97)
Jul 16, 1997 Mr Laloo Prasad Yadav accepted the three pre-conditions set by the Jharkhand People's Party for supporting his government in the upcoming trust vote. The JPP's three-point demand consisted of passing a bill for the creation of a separate Jharkhand state, total implementation of the tripartite agreement and the Jharkhand Area Autonomous Council Act, and withdrawal of all cases pending against the Jharkhand movement activists and their rehabilitation. (The Statesman [India] 7/16/97)
Jul 17, 1997 Singareni Karmika Samakhya (SIKASA) extremists shot dead a BJP leader, branding him as an anti-social element and a police informer. The SIKASA - the PWG’s trade union - organized a two-day strike in the coal mines the week before.(The Hindu 7/18/97)
Jul 18, 1997 An engineer was killed and a sentry injured when over 30 Naxalites attacked Narsapur (G) police station. The police station was attacked in retaliation to the killing of Arju, leader of the Boath dalam, in an encounter.(The Hindu 7/19/97)
Jul 21, 1997 The government absorbed 25 villages into the expanded core area of the Bori Sanctuary and Satpura National Park, in Hoshangabad district. The Korku and Gond “adivasis, who live in the villages of the Satpura hill ranges, would have been forced out of their forest homes by the year 2000, without government consultation. The villagers, who depend on the forest for their subsistence, would have lost their way of life and had no guarantee of compensation or even any choice in where they would have been relocated. (Inter Press Service 7/21/97)
Jul 22, 1997 The Bihar Assembly passed a resolution for the creation of a separate Jharkhand state, making it the third such endeavor which the Union Home Ministry considered that term. The previous two resolutions for similar states had been passed by the Uttar Pradesh and Madhya Pradesh Assemblies for the creation of Uttarakhand and Chhattisgarh respectively. The exact plans for the Jharkhand state, which included tribal-dominated districts in Madhya Pradesh, West Bengal and Orissa, led to protests in the Madhya Pradesh assembly, which did not want to cede a portion of its territory to a new state. (The Statesman [India] 7/23/97 & 7/24/97)
Jul 26, 1997 A group of six armed Naxalites belonging to the Vijalapuram Babu dalam of the People's War Group raided the Peddapanjani police station. (The Hindu 7/27/97)
Jul 29, 1997 The Kerala High Court ruled that bandh (strike) calls by political parties were "illegal" and "unconstitutional." In response, an Adivasi organization withdrew its bandh call for 15 August. Many other political parties expressed outrage at the possible limits on freedom of expression. (The Statesman [India] 7/29/97)
Aug 1997 During its congress, the All-India Congress Committee failed to elect even one person from the Scheduled Castes, the Scheduled Tribes, and the Other Backward Classes to leadership positions. (The Hindu 8/26/97)
Aug 3, 1997 The Union Minister for Welfare, Mr. Balwant Singh Ramoowalia, stated that for the first time since independence, the government had set up a separate commission to look into the welfare of the Scheduled Castes, Scheduled Tribes, backward classes and minorities in the country and that the Union Cabinet would discuss means to deal with the attitudinal bias prevalent in the bureaucracy against Dalits. (The Hindu 8/4/97). The banned People's War Group conducted a major 12-hour public meeting in a forest area on the border of Medak-Nizamabad districts, to pay respects to Naxalite leaders killed in police encounters. A group of reporters based in Medak district were also taken in a jeep to report on the proceedings. A few thousand people were mobilized for the public meeting, and 80 armed militants provided a security cover against the police. (The Hindu 8/4/97)
Aug 6, 1997 The Chief Minister of Andhra Pradesh, N. Chandrababu Naidu, strongly criticized naxalites due to their boycott of the Janmabhoomi public works program. He also compared them to the mafia, citing instances of extortion of money, carrying of weapons, and the use of threats and force. The Chief Minister's statements followed the shooting of Basava Reddy, the vice-president of his party's Warangal district unit. There had been accusations that Janmabhoomi projects had been given to contractors and not the general public. (The Hindu 8/7/97)
Aug 7, 1997 The supporters of a Naxalite group, the CPI-ML (Party Unity), prevented cultivation on hundreds of acres of land in Gaya district. Officials said the outfit prevented four people from cultivating their land at Kormatho village near Belaganj. A poster put up at the village school threatened the landowners. The CPI-ML (Party Unity) cadre were also reportedly planning to avenge the recent "murder" of their supporters. The Maoist Communist Center, another Naxalite organization, also “identified” about 1,000 acres of land belonging to rich landlords. The organization also "warned" laborers from working in the land. More than 1,000 acres of land had been distributed among the landless laborers during the past five years in Sherghati sub-division, but they had yet to get the land. (The Statesman [India] 8/7/97). Five policemen died when their vehicle ran over a landmine in a known PWG stronghold of Maharashtra. (Agence France Presse 8/7/97)
Aug 10, 1997 Fourteen policemen were injured in mine blasts triggered by the People's War Group at Machupet in Andhra Pradesh. (The Statesman [India] 8/10/97)
Aug 11, 1997 At its party congress, the Jharkhand Mukti Morcha-Soren "unanimously" resolved to stay out of the state Rabri Devi government, feeling it would prevent their agitation for a tribal state. (The Statesman [India] 8/11/97)
Aug 12, 1997 The Jharkhand Mukti Morcha president, Shibu Soren, threatened renewed agitation if the center did not announce the setting up of a separate Jharkhand state to coincide with the golden jubilee of the country's independence. (British Broadcasting Corporation 8/14/97)
Aug 13, 1997 The diktat issued by the People's War Group (PWG), asking elected representatives, government officials and schools not to hoist the Tricolour on Independence Day, heightened tension, as the police issued a warning that any adherence would invite severe legal action under the National Security Act. The PWG has sent letters to the ZPTC, MPTC, sarpanches (village leaders) and government officials asking them not to participate in Independence Day celebrations and, instead, to hoist a black flag. (The Hindu 8/14/97)
Aug 14, 1997 Members of the Forum of Academics for Social Justice shaved their heads during a protest against the National Commission for Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes at New Delhi’s Parliament House. The group felt that the 55 per cent minimum requirement in the National Eligibility Test, set by the University Grants Commission, violated Delhi University's reservation policy. (The Hindu, 8/10/97)
Aug 15, 1997 The state government of Bihar recommended to the State Election Commission to conduct the inaugural election to the Jharkhand Area Autonomous Council (JAAC) on November 15. (The Hindu 8/15/97). For a week, two Naxalite groups, Party Unity and the MCC, launched a violent campaign in the Chotanagpur belt. It included killing members of the rival parties and attacking a government Minister. (The Hindu 8/26/97)
Aug 21, 1997 A status report on extremist activities prepared by the Andhra Pradesh government appeared in an Indian newspaper. Among other things, the report conceded that the PWG was trying to run a parallel government and take over administration at the grassroots level, and that it had been either attacking or threatening the Forest, Revenue and APSEB officials to keep them from visiting villages. To create a political vacuum at the village level, the PWG rebels had been attacking leaders of various political parties and trying to unite leftist forces into a single group. (The Hindu 8/21/97)
Aug 25, 1997 The Minister of State for Health and Family Welfare, Ms. Renuka Chowdhary, opposed a proposal to eliminate a government scheme relating to the promotion of research on diseases to which the scheduled Castes and the Scheduled Tribes are generally prone, a school health check up program and the Panchayat Swastha Seva Scheme. All were to be cut due to budgetary restraints. (The Hindu 8/26/97). Two members of the People's War Group were killed in an exchange of fire with police on the outskirts of Sangem village in Andhra Pradesh. The incident occurred when police patrol parties, spotting some Naxalites holding a meeting near the hillocks in Kammalagutta, asked them to surrender. The Naxalites in turn fired at the police, provoking retaliation. Two other Naxalites were killed in separate incidents in Andhra Pradesh. Meanwhile, PWG Naxalites blew up the house of the ruling Telugu Desam legislator near Choutpally village in Nizambad District in protest against "fake encounters" with police. (British Broadcasting Corporation 8/29/97)
Aug 26, 1997 Naxalites of the outlawed Peoples' War Group (PWG) in Andhra Pradesh shot dead a local church pastor at Krishnadevaripeta, in the port city of Visakhapatnam. The Naxalites branded him as a "police informer."(British Broadcasting Corporation 8/28/97)
Aug 28, 1997 The CPI-ML (Party Unity) in Bihar threatened to attack contractors working at Kutku dam in the upper Kolay valley if they did not stop work. The outlawed Naxalite organization was protesting the government's negligence of the flood-hit villagers. (The Statesman [India] 8/28/97)
Aug 29, 1997 Three constables of an anti-Naxalite squad, carrying out combing operations in the agency area, and two extremists of PWG's Nagulakonda dalam were killed in an exchange of fire that lasted for about half an hour at Peddamallapuram. While leaving, the rebels came across a jeep belonging to the Girijan Cooperative Corporation (GCC), which was also set on fire, prompting the police action. (The Hindu 8/30/97)
Aug 30, 1997 A conference commemorating 50 years of Indian independence and the anniversary of Rajiv Gandhi's birth adopted resolutions urging the State Government to take action against self-financing institutions which made monetary collections from students belonging to Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes and for filling up the vacancies in the reserved quotas in Government jobs and Universities without delay. (The Hindu 8/30/97)
Aug 31, 1997 The Hindu reported on a series of one-upsmanship between Naxalite forces and the local police in Adilabad and Warangal, Andhra Pradesh. The Naxalites, who in the past had warned local parents not to let their children join the police or the armed forces, had begun locking up the houses of police families. In retaliation to the PWG action, the police went to Somarampet village and locked up the houses of three militants. The police ransacked the house before leaving. Earlier, they broke open the locks put up by the Naxalites in the house of the constable, Bal Reddy. The sudden raids forced the militants and their family members to flee the villages. (The Hindu 8/31/97)
Sep 3, 1997 The CPI(ML) People's War Group declared the east region of India, comprising Srikakulam, Vizianagaram, Visakhapatnam and East Godavari districts of Andhra Pradesh and Koraput and Ganjam districts of neighboring Orissa, a guerilla zone. The People's War Group had already formed two guerilla zones, one comprising of five districts of North Telangana in Andhra Pradesh and the other comprising of six districts situated on the borders of Maharashtra and Madhya Pradesh. (Bhandara, Gadchiroli, Chandrapur districts in Maharashtra and Bastar, Rajnandgaon and Balaghat districts in Madhya Pradesh form the Dankaranya guerilla zone, while Adilabad, Nizamabad, Karimnagar, Warangal and Khammam districts in Andhra Pradesh form the second guerilla zone). Technically, the PWG think-tank defined a guerilla zone as a stage of revolution “where on one side the reactionary government will not be in a position to steadily continue its rule and on the other side, the revolutionary forces will not be in a position to firmly establish their State power, however well the guerilla war might have developed. Both sides will be contending for full control over the area and it will remain as an intermediate zone between the two.” (The Hindu 9/3/97). Eight family members were gunned down by 200 members of the Maoist Communist Center, part of the Naxalite movement. (The London Guardian 9/4/97)
Sep 6, 1997 Ten CPI-ML (Liberation) activists were gunned down by the Maoist Communist Center at Amkudar village in south Bihar's Chatra district. But the Liberation office secretary, Mr Prabhat Kumar, said 30 were killed and many bodies were removed by the MCC cadres. The Liberation group was having a meeting of about 150 supporters prior to the attack. It took more than 15 hours for the Chatra police and district administration officials to reach the spot, allegedly because police were afraid to enter the site. Newspapers pointed to the incident as a sign that infighting between Naxalite groups was taking its toll, and the groups were losing their general population base. Between February 1 and September 6, Naxalite infighting claimed nearly 130 lives and injured many. (The Statesman 9/7/97 & 9/8/97)
Sep 8, 1997 The Kerala High Court directed the State Government to take effective steps to implement welfare schemes for the Scheduled Castes and Tribes. In the writ, earlier received as a letter, Mr. Mohandas of the Karuna Harijan Colony in Kannur had alleged that the welfare measures for the Scheduled Castes and Tribes had not been properly implemented and that the amount set apart for the schemes had been allowed to lapse over the years. If a person sought a loan or grant, the standard reply by the Government was non- availability of funds. (The Hindu 9/9/97)
Sep 11, 1997 The former Judge of the Supreme Court, Mr. V. R. Krishna Iyer, appealed to the warring Naxalites and the State to eschew violence and start a dialogue immediately. (The Hindu 9/11/97)
Sep 18, 1997 Armed activists of the Adivasi Samaj Sudhar Sena ambushed a police party in Khargone district and killed a man arrested for suspected involvement in the murder of a local Congress leader. Several hundred ASSS members, armed with bows and arrows, stones and sharp-edged weapons, ambushed the police team as they were returning from the village with the suspect, injuring 10 police officers and sixteen ASSS members. The organization was allegedly formed to counter Adivasi Mukti Sangathan's “increasing mass base and sustained campaigns against the liquor and forest mafia.” (The Statesman [India] 9/18/97)
Oct 1997 Several non-governmental organizations left the forest areas of Visakhapatnam and East Godavari after People's War Group leaflets warned them to close or face the consequences. The PWG felt the NGO’s diverted peoples’ attention from the class struggle. (The Hindu 10/29/97)
Oct 3, 1997 PWG naxalites tried to kidnap a team of officers and burn their vehicles in Sircilla mandal, after trying to burn three Government jeeps and a car in Ramagundam mandal the day before. Naxalites spared the officers and the vehicles at both places when villagers fell at their feet, pleading that the police will harass them later. The officers were visiting villages in the region as part of a public works project; the raid caused them to limit their visits. (The Hindu 10/4/97)
Oct 7, 1997 A fact-finding team of the Peoples' Union for Civil Liberties (PUCL) demanded a CBI probe into the recent killing of two adivasis and the alleged gang rape of adivasi women. It has also demanded from the State Government compensation of at least Rs. 100,000 each to the families of those killed in the police firing on August 27 and in police custody on September 17 and Rs. 10,000 each for all those injured. The PUCL report states that the AMS was fast growing to be a "direct challenge to leaders with the vested interests in the village such as the sarpanch, patel and mukhia" and, therefore, had to be countered. (The Hindu 10/8/97)
Oct 9, 1997 About 300 CPI-ML (Party Unity) activists attacked Bishunganj police picket in Jehanabad, burning the thatched house and escaping with 12 rifles, three carbines and more than 1,400 rounds of ammunition. Three policemen were injured in the attack. (The Statesman [India] 10/9/97)
Oct 13, 1997 Naxalites blasted the Chityal railway station in Andhra Pradesh as a prelude to a district bandh (strike) called by the PWG on 15 October to protest police operations against them and "false encounters." Communications equipment was damaged, but rail traffic was not disrupted. (The Statesman [India] 10/13/97)
Oct 18, 1997 The federal government announced a series of planned actions to improve dialogue between the Scheduled Tribes and Scheduled Castes and the government. The plans included monthly meetings between the Prime Minister and separate delegations of MPs belonging to the minorities and Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes irrespective of their party affiliations. The first meeting was scheduled for November. Furthermore, National Minorities Development and Finance Corporation visits teams had worked out a common formula for identifying the beneficiaries and expediting the process of disbursement of loans. Each beneficiary would henceforth be given a "Response Card" enabling them to get back to the Welfare Ministry directly with any complaint. (The Hindu 10/19/97)
Oct 23, 1997 A policeman and a civilian were killed when about 50 naxalites attacked the Peddakothapally police station. (The Hindu 10/24/97)
Nov 4, 1997 The National Commission for Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes (NCSCST) asked the Government to reconsider its decision of withdrawing the provision for relaxation of rules in promoting SC/ST candidates. The rules had been relaxed in times when there were not enough qualified workers, and allowed government posts to fill vacancies with SC/ST employees. The Supreme Court had ruled that such promotions were illegal, but the government now feared there were not enough people to do the available work. (The Hindu 11/5/97)
Nov 17, 1997 In a well-executed ambush, over sixteen extremists of the People's War Group (PWG) blasted landmines and opened fire on a police team, killing a Deputy Superintendent of Police, a Circle Inspector, four constables and a civilian between Shivampet and Pillutla villages. (The Hindu 11/18/97)
Nov 24, 1997 The Adivasi Mukti Sangathan (AMS) said it would intensify its agitation in western Madhya Pradesh's Nimar region for "the rights of suppressed and terrorized tribals in Khargone and Khandwa districts," and criticized the district administration and police for sabotaging a tribals’ rally that day. The "Adivasi Ekta rally" was held to protest against the three-month-old "repression and violence" allegedly unleashed by the Khargone administration and the police. The Khargone administration imposed prohibitory orders across the district on 22 November. All public meetings and rallies were banned and barriers put up on all the roads leading to Sendhwa, and as a preventive measure, the police arrested 25 AMS office-bearers. (The Statesman [India] 11/26/97)
Dec 2, 1997 Two naxalites were killed in separate alleged encounters in and around Jammikunta in Karimnagar district. (The Hindu 12/3/97)
Jan 1998 Under pressure from the People's War Group, dozens of leaders from the TDP party resigned. Analysts believed the resignations would affect the party's performance in the upcoming Lok Sabha (federal) elections. (The Hindu 1/7/98)
Jan 10, 1998 Naxalites killed nine upper-caste sympathizers of the Ranvir Sena at Rampur- Chauram village in Jehanabad in revenge for the killing of 61 CPI-ML supporters by the group the year before. The Patna Commissioner, Mr U K Sinha, admitted that the cycle of violence in central Bihar would not stop until land reforms were implemented and land disputes settled. (The Statesman [India] 1/11/98)
Jan 12, 1998 The CPI-ML (Party Unity) called for an election boycott in Bihar and threatened to "punish" those who ventured out to campaign or set up polling stations in extremist-controlled areas. Another Naxalite group, the Maoist Communist Center, had earlier called for an election boycott next month and made a "punishment" threat. The boycott calls affected more than 17 districts in south and central Bihar, including Jehanabad, Aurangabad, Chatra, Gaya, Palamau, Hazaribagh, and parts of Patna, Giridih and Rohtas. (The Statesman [India] 1/12/98)
Jan 14, 1998 The Peoples' War Group Naxalites shot dead a Congress leader, Goverdhan Reddy, in Warangal district, Andhra Pradesh. Reddy, former Sarpanch of Jalli village and Mandal Congress leader, was dragged out from his house by the Naxalites and shot dead. (The Statesman [India] 1/14/98)
Mar 17, 1998 During a parliamentary session, the Forest and Revenue Departments explained why it was taking so long to "regularize" Adivasi settlements in their jurisdictions. The Revenue Minister said a decision was taken in 1991-92 to conduct surveys into the land occupied by the Tribals. Both the Forest and the Revenue Departments were to do the surveys and the former was to send a report to the Center, which it did not, he told the House. However, the Forest Minister stated that a survey was carried out on encroachments on forest land prior to 1980. Some 3500 cases were identified and a report was sent to the Center about two years back. There was no response to it till now, he pointed out. (the Hindu 3/18/98)
Mar 19, 1998 About seven members of the Janashakti group of Naxalites killed an extremist belonging to the banned People's War Group in Andhra Pradesh. Previous rivalry is said to be the reason for the murder. (The Statesman [India] 3/13/98)
Apr 4 - 9, 1998 In two separate incidents, members of the PWG attacked and killed their own leaders and members of their squadron after feeling unfulfilled. The perpetrators in both cases turned themselves in to police. (The Hindu 4/14/98)
Apr 12, 1998 A fact-finding team commissioned by the Voluntary Action Network India (VANI) established that three adivasi women, including a 11-year-old girl, were kidnapped by armed dacoits in Madhya Pradesh and repeatedly gang raped for 17 days in December. The team reported that after repeatedly gang raping the women, the culprits planned to sell off two of them for Rs. 15,000 each and the 11-year-old girl for Rs. 17,000. The women were even shown to prospective buyers several times. However, the women were abandoned by the culprits in a field when the local police, following mounting public pressure, began a search for the women. The main culprits had been identified, but not arrested, due to political connections. According to the report, adivasis in different parts of the backward Morena, as well as Gwalior and Shivpuri districts, were frequently terrorized by non-adivasis, who implicate them in crimes and burn their crops to make them give up their land.(The Hindu 4/13/98). The CPI and CPI-M announced they would for the first time join hands with ultra-Left parties to fight communal (religious) forces, by joining an agitation led by the CPI-ML with the Jan Shakti (a breakaway group of the PWG) against the Telugu Desam Party and BJP in Andhra Pradesh. (The Statesman [India] 4/12/98)
Apr 14, 1998 Four women naxalites and one constable were killed in an exchange of fire on the Orissa border. Two other constables were injured in the nearly two-hour jungle encounter. (The Hindu 4/14/98)
Apr 15, 1998 The Andhra Pradesh Congress unit demanded that President's Rule be imposed in the state. The reasons given for the Central rule demand were: the burning of a suspect's brother by the police in Hyderabad; the rape of two women, including a former Naxalite, by the police; and the killing of two Congress workers in a group clash in Guntur. Pointing out that all the victims in the three incidents belonged to the minority community, Majlis MLAs alleged that a pattern involving attacks on minorities has emerged ever since the TDP has extended support to the BJP-led government in Delhi. (The Statesman [India] 4/15/98)
Apr 18, 1998 A constitution Bench of the Supreme Court has ruled that there cannot be any reservation in favor of Scheduled Castes, Scheduled Tribes and other backward classes in a "single cadre pos," because of the likelihood that such a position would then remain reserved in perpetuity. The decision was consistent with previous findings. (The Hindu 4/19/98). Two top leaders and a courier of the People's War Group of naxalites were killed in an alleged encounter with police on Karimnagar-Medak border. All three bodies bore severe contusions and they were lying with blood spilled around. (The Hindu 4/19/98)
Apr 27, 1998 Members of the Justice Shafiqul Haque Commission, set up by the Assam Government to inquire into the causes of the ethnic riots between Bodos and Adivasis in the Bongaigaon and Kokrajhar districts in May, 1996, reported that the commission had been stalled for about a year. The riots left about two-and- a-half lakh Adivasis homeless. The Commission received 189 memoranda from the affected people containing various allegations against the State Government and individual officials, which it forwarded to the State Government for reply. No reply had been received, but the government was threatening to close the refugee camps due to the expense. The refugees can not return to their original forest villages because they would be considered illegal trespassers on the reserves. (The Hindu 4/28/98)
Apr 30, 1998 Police freed four engineers from their Naxalite abductors in Bihar's Gumla district. (The Statesman [India] 4/30/98)
Apr 30, 1998 A group of Naxalites kidnapped a "police patil" from Nargunda, took him to a forest, and chopped off his head. (The Statesman [India] 4/30/98)
May 5, 1998 Members of the CPI-ML (Janashakthi group) shot dead Mr K Sathaiah, the Telugu Desam Mandal president last night, after accusing him of collecting money from some unemployed youths on the pretext of providing jobs in Karimnagar town. (The Statesman [India] 5/6/98)
May 6, 1998 Adivasis and Bodos engaged in a weekend of retaliatory rioting during which time 91 houses were burnt in the villages of Bangaldooba, Amguri, Nayakpara, Kaltongpara, Barapathar and Golasara six villages, and 13 Adivasis were hacked to death in Bismuri. The incident led to over 240 arrests. (The Hindu 5/7/98)
May 10, 1998 The Peoples War Group rebuffed efforts by the Committee of Concerned Citizens to mediate between the group and the State Government and try to reduce the scale of violence in Telengana districts. In April, the PWG had "responded positively" to suggestions to minimize violence, respect human life, and not coerce elected representatives, while the government had promised to eliminate "fake encounters" and regularize about one lakh (100,000) acres of land which the PWG had distributed to the poor. (The Hindu 5/11/98)
May 14, 1998 The Raj Disom Manjhi Baisi (RDMB), an organization of tribals, alleged that over one thousand tribals were killed in violent attacks by Bodos from May 1996, to this day, while another three thousand died in the relief camps because of malnutrition and lack of medical treatment in Kokrajhar, Bongaigaon and Dhubri districts. The RDMB leaders said that the Bodos had now started threatening the tribals and the government had ceased to provide food or security to the refugee camps. They also accused the government of contributing to the refugee problem by prosecuting Santhals encroaching in forest land, but leaving other groups alone. (The Hindu 5/15/98)
May 30, 1998 Naxalites of Janashakti attacked a five-member police party escorting a Congress candidate and snatched three pistols and two carbines from them at a meeting in Govindaram village. The naxalites also opened fire on a police constable and beat several villagers who had gathered for the meeting. (The Hindu 5/31/98)
Jun 10, 1998 Thirteen persons, including one sub-inspector of police, his gunman and eight Central Reserve Police Force (CRPF) members, were killed in a landmine blast detonated by People's War Group near Motlagudem village. (The Hindu 6/11/98)
Jun 13, 1998 Two government officers were arrested for allegedly raping a scheduled tribe woman in Rajasthan's Banswara town. (The Statesman [India] 6/13/98). The CB CID was entrusted with the investigation of the murder of a former dalam leader of the People's War Group, Eedanna, whose torso was discovered packed in a gunny sack in Padmaraonagar. Eedanna surrendered to the police in November, 1995, along with his wife, Hussain Bee, who was a member of the dalam. Hussain Bee was later the victim of a rape by policemen and was given police protection. She was contesting an election to a Zilla Parishad Territorial Constituency. Eedanna was last seen when he went inside the Nampalli railway station, after Hussain Bee had received assurance from the government that her husband would not be harmed if he was picked up by the police. Bee now believed the police had murdered her husband. (The Hindu 6/14/98)
Jun 14, 1998 A Naxalite was killed in an encounter in Andhra Pradesh. A police party returned fire when they were fired upon by a group of Naxalites holding a meeting near the village. (The Statesman 6/14/98)
Jul 6, 1998 Two police officers, including an Additional Superintendent of Police were shot dead by naxalites in the Hata police chowki in Madhya Pradesh. (The Hindu 7/7/98)
Jul 10, 1998 Naxalites shot dead the TDP leader and District Cooperative Central Bank chairman at Nirmal Town in Andhra Pradesh. (The Statesman [India] 7/10/98)
Jul 12, 1998 The People's War Group issued a circular to its dalams to observe restraint in the face of growing public criticism of their actions. This was regarded as unusual on the part of the underground organization which tended to justify the actions of its cadres. (The Hindu 7/13/98)
Jul 13, 1998 Seventeen houses belonging to two brothers were blasted by naxalites in Kotapalli mandal. The PWG claimed the brothers had registered cases against villagers who were cultivating lands that the PWG had seized, thus allowing the brothers to reclaim the land. The families had shifted their residence to Chennur due to naxalite threat while continuing farming in the village. The family owned hundreds of acres but claimed they were only cultivating what the PWG allowed, and that most of the holding was given up due to naxalite threats. (The Hindu 7/14/98)
Jul 15, 1998 The Andhra Pradesh Cabinet decided to reimpose the ban on the PWG and its outfits for one year. The earlier one-year ban came to an end in May 1998. (The Hindu 7/16/98)
Jul 15 - 16, 1998 Bommala Sivaiah, former leader of Vempenta and leader of an extremist outfit called Prathighatana, was killed in an attack by the People's War Group. In retaliation, the followers of Bommala Sivaiah attacked and killed eight of the opposite group. According to newspaper accounts, there was longstanding enmity between the Malas and Madigas over an Endowment Department. (The Hindu 7/17/98)
Jul 16, 1998 The All India Anna DMK and its allies submitted a 12-page letter to the Prime Minister to demand that the Center bring in a constitutional amendment to ensure legal protection to the 69 per cent reservation for scheduled castes, scheduled tribes and OBCs in the educational institutions in Tamil Nadu and set up a committee to study the feasibility of treating all Eighth Schedule languages, including Tamil, as official language. (The Statesman [India] 7/16/98)
Jul 26, 1998 People's War Group sympathizers and Biju Janata Dal supporters allegedly attacked the house of a noted Naxalite revolutionary. The incident occurred when 800 people were protesting against the murder of a tribal by harijans in group clash earlier. About 150 of them laid siege to Mr Patnaik's house and attacked it. (The Statesman [India] 7/26/98)
Jul 30, 1998 Six Peoples' War Group activists stormed into a power sub-station in the city outskirts and burnt office furniture and records last night. Some PWG naxalites also tried to set ablaze a SRTC bus at Kukatpally. (The Statesman [India] 7/31/98)
Sep 5, 1998 The general secretary of the Adivasi Sewa Samity and his son were kidnapped and killed in Assam, setting off two weeks of violence which eventually killed over 25 people. On 6 September, some Santhals attacked and injured three Bodos, including two women, with bows and arrows while 15 Santhal houses were torched by Bodos. (The Statesman [India] 9/9/98 & The Hindu 9/17/98)
Sep 7, 1998 A RJD MP allegedly entered the CPI-ML Liberation office and abducted their Siwan district office secretary. CPI party members claimed that the police did nothing to prevent the act, or arrest the perpetrator, prompting them to protest. Two days later, the MP subsequently entered their office during the protest and assaulted them, injuring 24, according the party. (The Statesman [India] 9/24/98)
Sep 8, 1998 Three persons, including a CPI-M leader and a Home Guard, were shot dead by Naxalites in separate incidents. (The Statesman [India] 9/8/98)
Sep 10, 1998 Two naxalites of the Janashakti group, including a division committee secretary (DCS), and a police constable, were killed in an exchange of fire with police at the interior tribal village of Pedaganteru. In a separate incident, two persons, the Chairman of a Vana Samarakshana Samiti (VSS) and a suspected female PWG member, were killed in an alleged encounter with the police on the outskirts of Chadmal village. (The Hindu 9/11/98)
Sep 17, 1998 A People's War Group Naxalite was killed in an police encounter in Nalgonda district's Gori Kothapalli village last night. (The Statesman [India] 9/18/98)
Sep 19, 1998 Irate villagers lynched a member of the Naxalite People's War Group after five of its militants shot and injured two Telugu Desam Party workers today at Veepangandla village in Mahabubnagar district. (The Statesman [India] 9/19/98)
Sep 20, 1998 Three businessmen of Sircilla were summoned to a forest for an "enquiry" by naxalites of Janashakti and shot dead at Nimmapalli village of Konaraopet mandal, while another two escaped. All five were beaten up by some 30 extremists of three dalams of Janashakti in the forest during an interrogation over a huge sum of party funds which was supposed to have been deposited with them by a zonal committee secretary of Janashakti, who was killed in an encounter recently. (The Hindu 9/22/98)
Sep 23, 1998 Naxalites of the Red Tigers group blasted a statue of Mahatma Gandhi at Kosgi town in Andhra Pradesh. The extremists, who had called for a boycott of Gandhi Jayanti celebrations, had left a note threatening to blow up the Gandhi statue at the state Assembly premises if it was not replaced with a Telugu Talli statue. (The Statesman [India] 9/23/98)
Sep 30, 1998 Four Central Reserve police members were injured when some PWG men blasted an armed outpost at Ramreddy village in Nizamabad district. (The Statesman [India] 9/30/98)
Oct 2, 1998 The mandal revenue office at Balanagar on the city outskirts adjoining Ranga Reddy district was torched by suspected Naxalites of the "Red Tigers" group. (The Statesman 10/2/98)
Oct 3, 1998 Two Naxalites were killed in encounters with police, while PWG militants blasted a police station and injured two persons, including a constable, in separate incidents in Andhra Pradesh. (The Statesman 10/3/98)
Oct 6, 1998 According to a joint communique, the CPI-ML (Party Unity), operating in central and south Bihar, was absorbed into the CPI-ML (People's War). (The Statesman [India] 10/6/98)
Oct 8, 1998 At least 16 policemen were killed and 15 others injured when Naxalites blasted two police vehicles using landmines on the Basuguda-Jagarguda road in Madhya Pradesh's Dantewara district. The blast occurred while an "anti-Naxalite" police team was patrolling the area. (The Statesman [India] 10/8/98)
Oct 9, 1998 A sub-inspector was killed and eight others, including six police constables, were injured when naxalites triggered landmines on the Vemulawada-Korutla highway, near Lingampet village. (The Hindu 10/10/98)
Oct 14, 1998 A district committee member (DCM) and a squad commander of the People's War Group (PWG) were among five PWG naxalites killed in an encounter with the police in the forest near Sangojipet village. In a separate encounter, a member of the Viplava Rytu Coolie Sangham (VRCS), the agricultural labor union of the PWG, was killed near Ramareddy village (The Hindu 10/15/98)
Oct 17, 1998 Five Adivasi inmates of a relief camp, including a one-year-old child, were gunned down while fishing about five km from the camp by suspected National Democratic Front of Bodoland militants in Kokrajhar district. Soon after the incident, some Adivasis from the camp attacked a nearby Bodo village and set fire to 10 huts. Eight Adivasis were arrested, as were seventeen Bodo youths, armed with guns, crude bombs, bows and arrows and machetes in anticipation of the Adivasis. (The Statesman [India] 10/17/98)
Oct 18, 1998 Naxalites of the banned People's War Group shot dead an auto driver and blew up the house of a landlord in two separate incidents in Andhra Pradesh; police arrested four rebels the night before. (The Statesman 10/18/98)
Oct 19, 1998 Two PWG members, including one involved in the ambush of Yadgiri police station recently, were killed in an encounter with police near Bibinagar in Andhra Pradesh. (The Statesman 10/19/98)
Oct 20, 1998 Naxalites blew up the Andhra Pradesh excise and prohibition minister's house after asking the inhabitants to leave. The attack was believed to be in retaliation for a recent encounter in the district, when nine PWG men were killed. The minister represented the Dichipalli Assembly constituency in Nizamabad district. (The Statesman [India] 10/20/98)
Oct 25, 1998 A Naxalite of the Chandrapulla Reddy-Janashakti group was killed in an encounter with the police in Mallareddypet village in Andhra Pradesh. (The Statesman [India] 10/26/98)
Oct 27, 1998 Seven TDP men were killed when CPI and Naxalite activists raided their houses in Konganapalli village. The CPI attack was to avenge the killing of their local body leader last January. Their main target - the former leader of the village - was not there. (The Statesman [India] 10/27/98)
Nov 1, 1998 Naxalites belonging to the banned People's War Group, CPI-ML Janashakthi and Red Tigers Group went on a rampage setting fire to a telephone exchange, hurling a bomb at a shop and assaulting people at three different places. (The Statesman [India] 11/2/98)
Nov 3, 1998 A senior leader of the CPI-ML Janashakthi group of naxalites was killed in an encounter with the police at Kistapur village in Andhra Pradesh, after police raided a house in the village. (The Statesman [India] 11/3/98)
Nov 5, 1998 Naxalites of the PWG set ablaze a state transport corporation bus near Magularpalli village in Andhra Pradesh in protest against the encounter at Banswada in which six Naxalites were killed. (The Statesman [India] 11/5/98)
Nov 8, 1998 Armed Naxalites gunned down seven people, suspected to be Ranveer Sena supporters, at Rampur village in central Bihar in part of the protracted battle for supremacy between the Naxalites and the Ranveer Sena, an outfit of upper caste landlords. Another group of Naxalites raided the police picket in the village to keep the police men busy. The Naxalites, who perpetrated the massacre, allegedly belonged to the CPI- ML (Peoples War). This is the first incident of mass killing after the CPI-ML (Party Unity) merged with the People's War last month. (The Statesman [India] 11/9/98)
Nov 11, 1998 A Singareni Karmika Samakya (Sikasa) member was killed in an encounter with police near Bellampally forests in Andhra Pradesh. Sikasa was a wing of the People's War Group. (The Statesman [India] 11/11/98). Maoist Communist Center rebels beheaded a rival People's War Group activist near Gargoma village, then left leaflets containing the hit-list of the rival targets at the scene. (The Statesman [India] 11/19/98). Apprehensive of poll violence in Naxalite and criminal-infested districts in the central Indian state of Madhya Pradesh, the government sealed inter-state borders and requisitioned helicopter services for aerial patrolling of the worst-hit areas, besides deploying 240 companies of federal forces for peaceful assembly polls. The police chief said during the pre-poll mopping up operations, 165 anti-socials had been booked under the National Security Act (NSA) and about 1,000 others arrested and jailed. The operation also led to the seizure of 2,575 illegal arms, he said, adding that the licenses of 8,799 weapons had been canceled and 1,25,000 arm licenses suspended. (British Broadcasting Corporation 11/21/98)
Nov 25, 1998 Two suspected police informers were dragged from their houses and shot dead, allegedly by Peoples War Group Naxalites, in Patna and Jehanabad, Bihar. (The Statesman [India] 11/25/98)
Dec 4, 1998 Eleven PWG insurgents were killed in an encounter with Indian police in Andhra Pradesh.(Deutsche Presse-Agentur 12/4/98)
Dec 8, 1998 Six Naxalites of the People's War Group (PWG) blasted the houses of a TDP leader and his brother at Bammera village of Palakurthy mandal. The Naxalites demanded to know why he was cultivating land they had claimed. (The Hindu 12/9/98)
Dec 11, 1998 A Naxalite of the CPI-ML Chandra Pulla Reddy group was hacked to death by Janasakthi group extremists at Peddapuram in Andhra Pradesh. (The Statesman [India] 12/11/98)
Dec 16, 1998 A former Congress(I) member of Parliament and three members of the banned People's War Group were killed and a telephone exchange was bombed in separate incidents in Andhra Pradesh. Kadem Narayana Reddy of the Congress (I) was shot dead by four Naxalites of an unidentified group at Ambarpet village in Adilabad district. (The Statesman [India] 12/16/98)
Dec 20, 1998 People's War Group Naxalites set fire to a house at Katnadhamrajpalli village in Andhra Pradesh. (The Statesman [India] 12/20/98)
Dec 21, 1998 The Orissa government ordered a combing operation to flush out Naxalites operating in areas bordering Andhra Pradesh after over 50 suspected PWG rebels attacked two police outposts killing a constable and injuring six. Naxalites used to cross over to these areas whenever there was a clampdown in neighboring Andhra Pradesh and Madhya Pradesh. The Orissa state government had followed a soft approach - no armed confrontation with Naxalites as long as they didn't create any law and order problem. (The Statesman [India] 12/21/98)
Dec 25, 1998 Seven persons belonging to the Scheduled Tribes were allegedly torched alive and 59 houses were burnt in Purnea in Bihar. Legislators said main reason was a dispute over land and felt that amendments to the relevant land laws were immediately required to protect the interest of cultivators and agricultural laborers. (The Hindu 12/25/98)
Dec 27, 1998 The CPI-ML (Liberation) conducted "panchayat elections" in 10 villages of Giridih district. Bihar hadn't had panchayat polls for more than 20 years, but villages in the Naxalite-dominated Bagodar block now had "gram pradhans" elected by the people, and subject to recall. Twenty- five per cent of the electorate could move a no-confidence motion against the village headman and 51 per cent could remove him from his post. The "panchayats" had a comprehensive plan to launch a "protracted struggle" against police repression and corruption. They are also looking to "drive out" corrupt officers. (The Statesman 12/27/98)
Jan 4, 1999 The Center announced it would consider banning the People's War Group if pressure exerted on them by state governments failed to achieve the desired results. (The Statesman [India] 1/4/99)
Jan 7, 1999 For the second time in three days, naxalites whisked away a 10-member team of Janmabhoomi officials and confined them for over four hours before releasing them unharmed. According to reports, the Janmabhoomi officials went to Dharmaraopet village and were about to commence the gram sabha when unidentified extremists made their appearance and asked the officials to stop the gram sabha. Later, they were directed to follow them to the village outskirts where they were questioned. The extremists confronted the officials as to why they were collecting revenue from the villagers and complained that there was no power supply to the village, but the government had hiked the power tariff. (The Hindu 1/7/99)
Jan 8, 1999 The Cabinet approved a proposal for the direct recruitment of 29 Scheduled Caste and Scheduled Tribe candidates under the special recruitment scheme for candidates in the two categories, who passed their M.A., M.Sc. and examinations with merit. Under a scheme launched during the Chief Ministership of Ramakrishna Hegde, 47 candidates had been recruited. A review had revealed a shortfall of 29 posts for five years between 1984 and 1996. (The Hindu 1/9/99). Engineers in the Public Works and Irrigation Departments launched a strike to protest the "excessive" reservations for promotion for Scheduled Caste and Scheduled Tribe members. (The Hindu 1/9/99)
Jan 9, 1999 Six naxalites stopped a State Road Transport Corporation bus, asked the passengers to get off, and then set it on fire near Govindwada village in Andhra Pradesh. (The Statesman [India] 1/10/99)
Jan 19, 1999 Three PWG naxalites, including a commander and a woman member, surrendered before the Andhra Pradesh home minister. (The Statesman [India] 1/19/99)
Jan 20, 1999 The BJP alleged that the West Bengal government had failed to utilize Central funds earmarked for the Scheduled Tribes, depriving members of education and housing facilities. A substantial portion of the funds released by the Center for tribal schools and hostels had to be sent back as it could not be spent. The Center and the state split these costs 80-20, but when the state did not pay its share, it forfeited the federal money as well. (The Statesman [India] 1/20/99)
Jan 24, 1999 The CPI-ML (Liberation) called a 12-hour Bangla bandh (strike) on 26 February to demand a judicial probe into the death of Naxalites and other Left leaders. (The Statesman [India] 1/25/99). Naxalites of the People's War Group shot dead a mandal unit president of the BJP at Chinnarathpalli village. (The Hindu 1/25/99)
Jan 26, 1999 At least 21 people - including six children and five women - belonging to the backward class were shot dead by the outlawed Ranvir Sena, a private militia of landlords in the eastern Indian state of Bihar. The Sena activists stormed five houses at Shankarbigha village in Jehanabad in retaliation for the slaying of two persons by activists of the Maoist Communist Center (MCC) in Sanda village the week before. At least 12 people were seriously wounded in the attack, the first major strike by Ranvir Sena since they killed 61 people in adjoining Lakshmanpur Bathe village in December 1997. (British Broadcasting Corporation 1/27/99)
Jan 27, 1999 Mr. M.A.A. Fathmi, MP and spokesman of the Rashtriya Janata Dal, urged the Union Government to sound a national alert in light of the increasing atrocities against minorities, the Scheduled Castes and the Scheduled Tribes in the country. He felt that the Center should provide protection rather than leave the matter to the states. (The Hindu 1/28/99)
Jan 28, 1999 Two people were killed in Khaira village, allegedly during a clash between the CPI-ML and the People's War Group, although others said the naxalites had retaliated against the Ranvir Sena for their attack three days before. (The Hindu 1/29/99). Two Naxalites were killed after 25 armed Naxalites attacked the police station in Nolonga. (The Statesman [India] 1/31/99)
Feb 3, 1999 The Chief Minister issued a government order restricting the reservations in promotions for the Scheduled Caste (SC) and Scheduled Tribe (ST) employees to the lowest category of Group A posts, prompting considerable protest. The order was issued in response to the January public works strike. (The Hindu 3/10/99)
Feb 4, 1999 Three policemen were killed, and two constables injured in a blast triggered by Keshkal Dalam Naxalites in Kanker, Madhya Pradesh. (The Statesman [India] 2/4/99). The People’s War Group issued an internal document urging its cadres to work on defending existing bases and military training as well as building up the party. Newspapers suggested that this admonition indicated the group was losing strength. (The Statesman [India 2/4/99)
Feb 8, 1999 Seven PWG Naxalites blasted the Mandal Revenue Office at Nannel village in retaliation for a recent encounter at Asnad in the district, police said. (The Statesman [India] 2/8/99). The government imposed "President’s Rule" in Bihar in response to the killing of twelve peasants by Ranvir Sena in January. The local government was restored a month later. (Inter Press Service 3/8/99)
Feb 18, 1999 The Opposition in the Andhra Pradesh Assembly drew attention to the fact that the two schools which had agreed to locate in the state did not have reserved slots for Scheduled Caste, Scheduled Tribe and Backward Class students. The Indian Institute for Information Technology and the Indian School of Business were supposed to be linked with international institutions and major technology firms such as Microsoft. (The Hindu 2/19/99)
Feb 24, 1999 An Assistant Sub-Inspector of Wajedu police station was kidnapped by the 30 members of the PWG and taken to the forests of Madhya Pradesh. He was suspected to have been killed by them. (The Hindu 2/25/99)
Feb 24, 1999 The secretary of the PWG East Division Forest Committee, and his wife, a squad member, surrendered before the Home Minister. (The Hindu 2/25/99)
Feb 28, 1999 A group of Shantipal Naxalites allegedly killed two CPI workers near Bhatkhoria village. (The Statesman [India] 2/28/99)
Mar 3, 1999 Maoist rebels murdered four members of the Ranvir Sena militia in Jehanabad in retaliation for last month's massacre of 11 farmers in eastern Bihar. (The Hindu 3/4/99)
Mar 8, 1999 People's War Group activists used gelatin explosives to blow up a police station under construction at Dichpally in Nizamabad. (The Statesman 3/8/99)
Mar 16, 1999 A police head constable was killed and two others injured when about 30 naxalites belonging to the People's War Group opened fire at a police party near Lingampally village in Warangal District, Andhra Pradesh. In another incident, about 15 ultras went to Kallur Railway Station and blasted the generator and control rooms, damaging the communication system. Police suspect the rebel's action was in protest against the killing of two leaders of the Radical Students' Union (RSU) in an encounter with police recently in Mahbubnagar District. (British Broadcasting Corporation 3/17/99)
Mar 19, 1999 About 100 people suspected of belonging to the People's War Group surrounded Senari village in Jehanabad district in Bihar and indiscriminately fired their weapons. Initial reports said the attack on mostly upper-caste people suspected of having ties to Ranvir Sena was in retaliation for the killing of 34 farm workers belonging to the Dalit (oppressed) community by a right-wing private militia of landowners last month. (Deutsche Presse-Agentur 3/19/99)
Mar 20, 1999 According to police, a total of 450 Naxalites from different cadres surrendered to the police in the last year following appeals made by the government of Andhra Pradesh to the Naxalites to join the mainstream. (British Broadcasting Corporation 3/21/99)
Mar 25, 1999 Three policemen were killed and seven injured when Naxalites set off land mines and fired upon them on the Maharashtra-Andhra Pradesh border in Gadchiroli District. In the two-hour-long exchange of fire that ensued an inspector was also killed and two constables were injured. (British Broadcasting Corporation 3/26/99)
Mar 28, 1999 At the first plenary and third district meetings of the PWG, the group passed a resolution to temporarily disband two of its frontal organizations - Viplava Rythu coolie sangham (VRCS) and Viplava mahila sangham (VMS) - in Nizamabad district as they were not able to face the onslaught of the police. (The Hindu 5/7/99)
Mar 30, 1999 CPI-ML (Peoples War) cadres shot dead three supporters of another Naxalite group, CPI-ML (Shati Pal) at Madurai village in Bhojpur district. (The Statesman [India] 3/31/99)
Mar 31, 1999 A CPI-ML (Liberation) activist, working land seized by the group two years ago, was shot and killed by the land’s original owner accompanied by a group from Ranvir Sena. Five people, including a constable, were killed and at least nine injured in the ensuing violence. (The Statesman [India] 3/31/99)
Apr 1, 1999 Ten members of the PWG were killed in a five-hour clash with police in Medak district. In a separate incident in Adilabad, four PWG activists were killed in an exchange of fire in a forest. (Deutsche Presse-Agentur 4/1/99)
Apr 4, 1999 A Naxalite was killed in an encounter at Mangalapura village in Andhra Pradesh.. (The Statesman [India] 4/4/99)
Apr 6, 1999 Violence broke out after students belonging to the Scheduled Castes (SC) and Scheduled Tribes (ST) at the Jnanabharati campus of Bangalore University launched a demonstration to demand the suspension of a teacher in the Kannada Department, who had insulted the students during a trip. The students ransacked the Civil Engineering Department, library, and administrative buildings. Fifteen people were arrested and the university closed for the day. (The Hindu 4/7/99)
Apr 7, 1999 A top leader of the Peoples' War Group was killed in an encounter with police near Konraopet police station in Andhra Pradesh. (British Broadcasting Corporation 4/8/99)
Apr 9, 1999 Three Naxalites of Jana Rakshana Samithi, a breakaway group of Janasakthi, were killed in an exchange of fire near Kothagattu village in Karimnagar District. In Adilabad District, a central organizer of Singareni Karmika Samakhya (Sikasa), a frontal organization of the banned People's War Group (PWG), was killed in an encounter with a police party on combing operations. (British Broadcasting Corporation 4/10/99)
Apr 12, 1999 The State Government decided to extend reservations in promotion of the Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes by filling up all backlog vacancies since 1978 by creating supernumerary posts. This was expected to be a one-time process, after which reservation in promotion to SCs and STs would be limited to 15 per cent and 3 per cent respectively. The decision was controversial because many SC and ST members felt that they had been unfairly denied promotions in the past because they were deemed unqualified, pointing to the increase in backlog vacancies from 1978 through 1992. (The Hindu 4/13/99)
Apr 13, 1999 Mr. D. Sripada Rao, former Speaker of the Andhra Pradesh Assembly, was intercepted by PWG members as he traveled by Jeep near Annaram village. The Manthani squad of the PWG asked him to get out and opened fire, killing him on the spot before fleeing into the forest. In a separate incident, extremists of the Rachakonda squad of the People's War Group (PWG) blasted a house in Manthena Gowrelli village in the early hours. (The Hindu 4/14/99)
Apr 14, 1999 Five PWG members planted a powerful bomb that shattered a portion of Puttur railway station in Andhra Pradesh to avenge the murder of their colleague, Shankar, in a fake encounter with police recently. (The Hindu 4/15/99)
Apr 15, 1999 Eight Naxalites were killed in a fierce encounter with police near Seethampalli village in Andhra Pradesh. (British Broadcasting Corporation 4/16/99)
Apr 19, 1999 One CPI-ML (Liberation) activist was killed and at least eight were seriously injured in a bomb blast at Daudpur village of Chanchal. According to the CPI-ML (Liberation) Malda district committee, Sheik Hakim, a CPI activist, and his associates hurled the bomb at the house of Majed Ali, as a result of a longstanding land dispute. Rafikul Islam, brother of Tajammal Hossain, who was injured in the blast, alleged there was a nexus between police and CPI activists. He also alleged that the next day police came to the village and tortured the womenfolk. Twelve women from Daudpur were arrested in connection with the blast. (The Statesman [India] 4/19/99)
Apr 22, 1999 Twelve people were killed when a hundred armed members of a landowners’ militia stormed two villages in Bihar and opened fire on victims. The militia claimed it was avenging the murder of 35 landowners killed in March by Naxalites. (Deutsche Presse-Agentur 4/22/99)
Apr 23, 1999 The Madras High Court awarded a compensation of Rs. 1 lakh (100,000) to a Scheduled Tribe woman who was gang-raped by six policemen in 1993. The judge also directed the transfer of the case to a Special Court under the SC/ST (Prevention of Atrocities) Act. Before parting with the case, the Judge expressed his displeasure over the alleged misconduct of the Chief Judicial Magistrate, Pondicherry, who made an inquiry on the basis of a complaint given by the victim to the Human Rights commission. The CJM had allegedly used filthy language against the victim and a professor who helped her in drafting a petition to the Human Rights Commission. (The Hindu 4/24/99). C. Ramachandra Reddy, alias Ramesh, reportedly a prominent member of the Palar Dalam of the PWG, was killed in an alleged encounter with the police in the Palargadda forest fringe village near Ramakuppam, on the Andhra Pradesh-Karnataka border, after personnel belonging to the Special Protection Force surrounded the hut in which he took shelter. (The Hindu 5/5/99)
May 6, 1999 The Karimnagar District Committee Member of the CPI (ML) People's War Group (PWG), Ramchandar, and two other naxalites of the Sircilla squad were killed in an exchange of fire with a combing party of the police in the forest near Garjanapally village. (The Hindu 5/7/99)
May 7, 1999 A People's War Group party blasted a newly-built police station at Pembi in Adilabad district. There were no casualties. (The Hindu 5/8/99)
May 9, 1999 Five naxalites belonging to the People's War Group, including two women, surrendered before the Home Minister, Mr. A. Madhava Reddy. (The Hindu 5/10/99)
May 10, 1999 Four Naxalites died in an exchange of fire with police in the Yellareddi area. Two gram sevaks were also killed when the District Committee member and Banswada dalam deputy commander used them as human shield to escape from the scene of the encounter.(The Hindu 5/11/99)
May 17, 1999 Suspected members of the People's War Group tried to set fire to a bus near Bhikanoor police station limits by posing as passengers and getting the bus to stop. Failing in their attempt to set afire the bus, they broke its windows and fled the scene. The actions was reportedly in retaliation for the Kanchumal encounter, in which four naxalites had died. (The Hindu 5/18/99)
May 22, 1999 Suspected members of the People's War Group blasted the mandal praja parishad building in the town of Velpur, possibly to coincide with 'Anti- Repression week' observed by the PWG throughout the district beginning on May 22. (The Hindu 5/23/99)
May 23, 1999 A sub-inspector of police and his driver were killed when suspected activists of the People's War Group detonated a landmine near Kodauna police station in Andhra Pradesh. In pamphlets recovered by police from the spot, the PWG men claimed that they had avenged last week's killing of two of their colleagues in an encounter by police in Gumla District in South Bihar. (British Broadcasting Corporation 5/25/99). The homeguard of Manthani police station in Karimnagar district was kidnapped by naxalites of the People's War Group (PWG) from Khammampally village and found shot dead two miles away the next morning. The naxalites left a note near the body stating that the killing was in retaliation to the alleged fake encounter killing of Velpula Madanaiah, leader of a local guerrilla squad of the PWG, at Tadicherla village of Malhar mandal the previous evening. (The Hindu 5/25/99)
May 29, 1999 A suspected member of the People's War Group was killed and five policemen were injured when extremists blasted a culvert on the outskirts of Yerrapahad village. In a separate incident, suspected naxalites blasted a telephone exchange in Renjarla village of Balkonda mandal in retaliation to the killing of a party militant by the villagers three days ago. (The Hindu 5/30/99)
May 31, 1999 The general secretary of the Warangal district unit of the Bharatiya Janata Yuva Morcha (BJYM), the youth wing of the BJP, was shot dead by naxalites of the People's War Group in Parkal town. The killing led BJP workers to resort to violence while organizing bandh (strike) in the town. (The Hindu 5/31/99)
Jun 2, 1999 Eight people, including seven police personnel, were killed and six wounded in a landmine blast triggered by a banned leftist group near the capital of Bihar. (British Broadcasting Corporation 6/3/99)
Jun 6, 1999 Manda Krishna Madiga became a leader of "Anagaarina Kulaala Aikya Vedika," a bigger platform in which Scheduled Castes, Scheduled Tribes, the 93 Backward Classes, the minorities and also including the upper castes would fight for reservations in proportion to their population. (The Hindu 6/7/99)
Jun 10, 1999 Two Naxalites, including a woman, were killed in an encounter with police near Nawabpet village in Karimnagar. In another incident, Naxalites blew up the MRO office at Sadasivnagar in Nizamabad reportedly to protest the killing of its central organizer in a recent encounter. (British Broadcasting Corporation 6/11/99)
Jun 24, 1999 Several speakers at a meeting organized by the United Struggle Committee Against Fake Encounters demanded enforcement of the guidelines laid down by the National Human Rights Commission on police encounters. The meeting was held to protest against the killing of two naxalites and two robbers by the police in separate encounters during the previous 15 days. (The Hindu 6/25/99). Four naxalites, including the woman deputy commander of the Sirnapalli dalam of the People's War Group, were killed in an exchange of fire with the police between the Ramudugu and Lolam forest area of Dharpalli mandal. (The Hindu 6/26/99)
Jun 27, 1999 At a conference for the Helava people, Malikayya Guttedar, Minister for Backward Classes, unveiled several government initiatives to help various tribes and other backward classes. These included a scheme of direct lending to the backward classes with the help of the National Backward Class Commission for the Other Backward Classes (OBCs) to support economically self-reliant schemes instead of availing the finances through the lending institutions, and a direct lending program in dairying. The Belli Baduku program planned to construct houses for the OBCs, dependent on the availability of 50 recipients. Another plan, "Mangalya Bhagya," was being implemented to give cash assistance of Rs 5,000 each time the oldest daughter belonging to backward classes and minorities, got married. Many people criticized the scheme as one promoting dowry. The reported rationale was that the family should have some basic financial strength to perform the marriage. The Minister also planned to raise the ceiling of assistance available under the self-employment scheme from Rs. one lakh to Rs. 5 lakhs. Referring to the problems of the Helava community, he said that problems occurred in providing assistance as they are nomadic peoples. The Government would consider their demand for including them in the Scheduled Tribes category, he said. (The Hindu 6/28/99)
Jul 12, 1999 Four naxalites of the People's War Group were killed in an encounter with the police in the hill ranges near Narsapur. The encounter followed the police interception of a courier of the PWG who led the forces to a spot where about 40 extremists, including four top leaders, were gathered for a meeting. (The Hindu 7/13/99)
Jul 30, 1999 A group of adivasi people living near the Narmada River announced their plan to commit mass suicide to protest the flooding of their villages by a dam project down the river. Arundhati Roy, an internationally renowned Indian author, received considerable disapproval for drawing international attention to the plight of the underdeveloped adivasi villages, which were being flooded as part of a plan to bring electricity to wealthier farmers and cities down river. (The Guardian [London] 7/30/99)
Aug 1999 The People’s War Group conducted a campaign to convince people to boycott the upcoming elections, including passing out pamphlets in Hindi calling on the tribals to boycott the Lok Sabha and Maharashtra Assembly elections, denouncing Indian democracy and spelling out Mao's maxim that power comes not from ballot-boxes but from the barrel of the gun. (The Hindu 8/30/99)
Aug 7, 1999 Three Naxalites were killed in an exchange of fire with the police when they attacked a police station at Chhuria . (British Broadcasting Corporation 8/8/99)
Aug 12, 1999 The Constitutional Bench of the Supreme Court ruled that the creation of lower standards for admission for scheduled tribe members, and scheduled castes for admission to medical school was contrary to the national interest and should be decided by the Medical Council of India and not any government body. (The Hindu 8/13/99)
Aug 18, 1999 Tribals in Marrigudem clashed with police resulting in the death of one tribal (The Hindu 8/18/99)
Sep 4, 1999 An Assistant Inspector-General of Police, his driver, and guard were shot dead by the People's War Group at a traffic stop. The police commissioner, said the killing was in retaliation for the steps the man had taken against Naxalites as the Karimnagar district SP during 1997-98. (The Statesman [India] 9/4/99)
Sep 13, 1999 Three police officers were killed when suspected PWG rebels blew up the Medak district police station in Andhra Pradesh. The attack was the third blamed on Naxalites in the southern state since the five-phase poll process to choose new deputies to the 545-member lower house of parliament began on September 5. (Deutsche Presse-Agentur 9/13/99)
Sep 15, 1999 A deputy of the legislative assembly of Andhra Pradesh was shot dead by suspected Maoist insurgents. P. Purushottam Rao of the ruling regional Telugu Desam Party (TDP) and candidate for the upcoming election to the state assembly was killed in Sirpur Kagaznagar town along with two of his bodyguards. (Deutsche Presse-Agentur 9/15/99)
Sep 17, 1999 At least 29 policemen and four political activists were killed in landmine explosions on election day in Bihar. The attacks were blamed on the Maoist Communist Center and People's War Group. In addition, suspected naxalites of the banned People's War Group bombed a tractor which brought the polling material to the Nagampet polling station and set ablaze ballot papers and ballot boxes. The high level of violence led the BJP to ask for a repoll in many of the violent districts. (United Press International 9/18/99 and The Hindu 9/18/99& 9/19/99)
Sep 19, 1999 Police foiled a bid by naxalites of the People's War Group to attack a new police station building. The naxalites and a contingent of the police force, which was posted at the building temporarily, exchanged fire for some time following which the extremists retreated. (The Hindu 9/20/99)
Sep 20, 1999 People's War Group Naxalites triggered a powerful landmine blast killing four policemen in Karimnagar district of Andhra Pradesh. A special police party comprising two armed reserve policemen and two civil police personnel were engaged in clearing landmines planted by the PWG when the explosion occurred. (British Broadcasting Corporation 9/20/99)
Sep 25, 1999 In Madhya Pradesh, Naxalites raided at least six polling booths in Bastar, looting ballot boxes and papers on the second phase of polling. (The Statesman [India] 9/25/99)
Sep 28, 1999 The Constitutional Bench of the Supreme Court denied "reservations in promotions" to members of the Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes, stating that they went against the spirit of equality. While the Constitution did allow reservations, the Court said the phrasing only made them possible, not necessary. (The Hindu 9/29/99)
Oct 11, 1999 A Division Bench of the Kerala High Court on Monday directed the State Government and the Revenue Divisional Officers not to implement the provisions of the Kerala Restriction on Transfer by and Restoration of Lands to Scheduled Tribes Act, 1999, until further orders. The court was asked to take up the matter after the Kerala government had hastily implemented the transfer of tribal lands under a similar 1975 law. People were afraid that the return of the tribal lands might be complicated if non-tribal people who were given land in 1975 were actually issued deeds to the property in accordance with the previous act. (The Hindu 10/12/99)
Oct 27, 1999 The Lok Sabha unanimously passed the 84th Constitution (amendment) Bill extending reservation of seats in Parliament and State Assemblies for Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes by another ten years beyond 2000. (The Hindu 10/28/99)
Oct 31, 1999 Two policemen were seriously injured when suspected members of the People's War Group Banswada area fired at them at the Gandhari mandal headquarters. Some accounts stated that the policemen were in fact members of a private army working in consultation with the police. (The Hindu 11/1/99)
Nov 18, 1999 About 200 suspected members of the Maoist Communist Center attacked the house of a prosperous farmer, killing him and all members of his family. He was believed to be affiliated with the People's War Group and Ranvir Sena, which are rivals of the MCC. The incident was apparently in retaliation to the January massacre of 21 communist workers by Ranvir Sena, an outlawed group of rich landowners. (United Press International 11/18/99)
Nov 24, 1999 Eight north Bengal regional parties --- Uttar Banga Tafasili Jati-O-Adivasi Sangathan, Samajwadi Jana Parishad, Jharkhandi Sangharsh Samity, CPI-ML (Santosh Rana), Transferred Area Suryapuri Organization, Federation of Individual and Democratic Rights and the Rajbanshi Youth Organization -- formed an alliance to demand autonomy for the region and 15 other subjects related to social, economic and political development of this part of the state. The organizers won the Communist Party Revolutionary Marxist's support and were reaching out to other Naxalite groups. (The Statesman [India[ 11/19/99)
Nov 26, 1999 An official in Purulia declared that "all government money should stop flowing to Rama Krishna Mission schools," and attempted to do so. His actions prevented a school from receiving a grant for the 50 students from scheduled tribes who attended the school. A part of the money also meets the Mission's expenses in running a charitable dispensary in Purulia which caters exclusively to tribals. (The Statesman [India] 11/26/99)
Nov 28, 1999 Fifteen PWG members armed with guns and lethal weapons stormed the Bellamkonda railway station in Andhra Pradesh. (The Hindu 11/29/99)
Nov 30, 1999 Naxalites of the People's War Group attacked and killed a TDP leader near Thoomkunta village. After the attack, TDP workers in the village attacked and damaged the houses of some Congress leaders suspecting that they had instigated the naxalites. (The Hindu 12/1/99)
Dec 1, 1999 Four police officers were killed in a landmine blast triggered by suspected PWG rebels in Andhra Pradesh.(Deutsche Presse-Agentur 12/1/99)
Dec 2, 1999 Four PWG members, including three leaders, were killed in a fierce encounter with the police in Koyyuru forest, Andhra Pradesh. The killings were followed by allegations that the encounter had been staged to cover up torture, leading the government to demand a post mortem on the victims, at the request of their families. (The Hindu 12/3/99 & 12/4/99)
Dec 5, 1999 Three persons were killed when People's War Group naxalites triggered landmines near Tarlapadu village. This was the fourth incident in two days in Adilabad district, after the killing of three top PWG leaders in an encounter in Karimnagar district. (The Hindu 12/6/99)
Dec 6, 1999 Suspected naxalites belonging to the Boath dalam of the People's War Group (PWG), bombed the house of a former Minister and Telugu Desam Party ad hoc committee convener in Jatrala village, Andhra Pradesh. Incidents were reported from Nizamabad and Adilabad district as well. In Adilabad district, three buses were burnt. (The Hindu 12/7/99)
Dec 7, 1999 In Warangal district in Andhra Pradesh, two constables were shot dead by a PWG squad in the Eturunagaram forest area. Attacks on houses of political leaders, the burning of buses and telephone exchanges have been reported from other Telangana districts. (The Hindu 12/8/99)
Dec 8, 1999 The State Cabinet of Andhra Pradesh decided to further amend the Panchayat Raj Act of 1993 to give greater representation to Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes even as the Governor promulgated an omnibus Ordinance amending the same Act undoing the amalgamation of panchayats carried out by the Janata Dal Government. The amendment decided upon at the Cabinet meeting was to Section 5 of the 1993 Act to ensure that there were SC and ST members in all the 5,363 gram panchayats. The amendments are being carried out through an Ordinance. The particular section of the 1993 Act had said that representation for those sections in the gram panchayats which had less than 15 per cent SC population and less than three per cent ST population, should be in proportion to their population in terms of the 73rd Constitution amendment. (The Hindu 12/9/99)
Dec 9 - 16, 1999 During a week long protest by the People’s War Group against the killing of three of its leaders, the rebels went on a rampage in various districts in Andhra Pradesh, destroying Government buildings and properties of ruling Telugu Desam party leaders. The violence was more pronounced in Adilabad district where an RTC bus was set on fire near Sanathpur, while elsewhere in the district, a rice mill owned by a TDP leader was blown up. In Karimnagar district, the extremists blasted a telephone exchange in Mamidalapally, the native village of a ruling party legislator. The office of the Mandal Revenue Officer was blown up in Addatigala village while in Mahabubnagar, a building housing the Judicial First Class Magistrate was razed. In Kurnool, extremists blasted the quarters of a forest guard near Velugodu village. They also bombed the railway station at Rajampet, burned several other stations and trains in Andhra Pradesh, and killed the Madhya Pradesh transport minister, as well as five tenants staying in a building owned by a TDP leader (The Hindu 12/9/99 & 12/13/99 & 12/16/99)
Dec 15, 1999 Mr. M. Manjini, MLA and convener of the Pondicherry unit of the PMK, said that a detailed representation had been presented to the Center by the party's founder, Dr. S. Ramadoss, seeking recognition of the Scheduled Tribes residing in the Union Territory of Pondicherry. (The STs were not recognized there and they did not receive the benefits of reservation as in other states.) Mr. Manjini said that there were 6,000 families of different castes of the scheduled tribe living in Pondicherry. (The Hindu 12/16/99)
Dec 18, 1999 A division bench of the Kerala High Court found that the State Government had committed contempt of court by not implementing its directions for restoration of alienated lands to tribals under the Kerala Scheduled Tribes (Transfer of Land and Restoration of Alienated Lands) Act, 1975. (The Hindu 12/17/99)
Dec 19, 1999 A head constable of the Andhra Pradesh Special Police was killed and another injured when suspected naxalites of the People's War Group blasted a culvert between Dubbaguda and Salgulapalli villages. The region was scheduled to go to the polls the following day. (The Hindu 12/20/99)
Dec 20, 1999 Members of the PWG bombed the house of a member of Andhra Pradesh's ruling Telugu Desam Party after asking the occupants to leave the building. (Agence France Presse 12/20/99)
Dec 21, 1999 Four suspected naxalites of the PWG Huzurabad dalam set fire to a house of the former Osmania University Vice-Chancellor at Jeelugulapalli village. Six members of the same dalam set afire the house of the TDP Mandal Praja Parishad president, at Huzurabad town, after being told that he was not there. In a separate incident, twenty members of the PWG's Metpally dalam set fire to an RTC bus at Rechapalli village. (The Hindu 12/22/99)
Dec 22, 1999 The Center decided to amend the Constitution to restore the relaxation on qualifying marks and standards of evaluation for promotion of SC/ST candidates in government jobs. The Cabinet decision followed the Supreme Court ruling that promotion of SC/ST candidates should be based on merit. The proposed amendment would enable the government to revert to the original norm where SC/ST candidates were eligible for reservations in promotion in government jobs. (The Statesman 12/22/99)
Dec 24, 1999 The Karimnagar district police arrested five naxalites belonging to the People's War Group in Andhra Pradesh. (The Hindu 12/25/99)
Dec 25, 1999 A TDP leader was injured and his two gunmen were killed when naxalites of the People's War Group fired on them at the residential junior college he owned. It was the second attempt on his life in six months. (The Hindu 12/26/99)
Dec 27, 1999 The house of the TDP MLA of Parkal was bombed by naxalites of the People's War Group (PWG) at Garimillapalli village. (The Hindu 12/27/99)
Dec 29, 1999 Ten Naxalites belonging to PWG Husnabad Srinu dalam set fire to the house belonging to a landlord at Kesavapur village, after asking the residents to leave. Suspected naxalites belonging to the PWG Peddapalli dalam set fire to the house of another landlord in Rachapalli village. (The Hindu 12/30/99)
Jan 11, 2000 About 25 PWG guerrillas bombed a police camp at Kazaznagar town in Andhra Pradesh, killing two policemen. (Agence France Presse 1/11/00)
Jan 14, 2000 Police raided PWG hideouts in the Sirnapalli forest, arresting two and foiling a plan to blast a police station in the heart of Nizamabad town. (The Hindu 1/15/00)
Jan 24, 2000 The President gave assent to the Constitution (79th Amendment) Act, 1999, extending reservations for Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes in the Lok Sabha and State Assemblies for a period of 10 years, until January 25, 2010. The Act also seeks to extend the provisions for nomination of Anglo-Indians to the Lok Sabha and State Assemblies for the same period or up to the 60th year from the commencement of the Constitution on January 26, 1950. (The Hindu 1/25/00). According to the Union Minister of State for Home, in the first nine months of 1999, there were 366 naxalite-related incidents in Andhra Pradesh, including 108 deaths, as against 737 incidents and 205 deaths in 1998. Bihar registered 288 deaths out of 347 incidents in 1999, while the corresponding figure for 1998 was 206 deaths in 370 incidents. (The Hindu 1/24/00)
Jan 26, 2000 Members of the People's War Group observed 'black day' in some parts of Adilabad district by burning National Flags and hoisting black flags as part of the boycott of Republic Day celebrations. The statues of Mahatma Gandhi and Nehru were painted black by miscreants at Dharpalli mandal headquarters in Nizamabad district, Andhra Pradesh. (The Hindu 1/27/00)
Jan 26 - 27, 2000 A PWG Husnabad member was killed in an exchange of fire with the police at Gatlanarsingapur village. In another encounter, six naxalites blasted a landmine between the Jogapur and Ramaraopalli village road targeting the police; one rebel was killed. (The Hindu 1/28/00)
Jan 29, 2000 Fifteen to twenty Naxalites belonging to the outlawed CPI(ML) People's War Group bombed a new building meant to be a police station at Vajrakarur. There was no loss of life. The naxalites left a note at the site stating that it was in retaliation for the killing of Mr. Nalla Adireddy in a "fake encounter" in Karimnagar district a couple of months ago. (The Hindu 1/30/00)
Feb 2000 Threats from the Maoist Communist Center organization led all of the major parties in Jharkhand to announce that they would not seek to participate in the Ranchi Lok Sabha. (The Hindu 2/11/00)
Feb 2, 2000 In Andhra Pradesh, seven Naxalites, including two women, were killed in separate encounters with the police in Warangal District. (British Broadcasting Corporation 2/2/00) Two naxalites belonging to the People's War Group Malyal were killed in an encounter with the police on the outskirts of Suravaram village. (The Hindu 2/4/00)
Feb 11 - 12, 2000 At least 24 people were killed, mainly in bomb attacks, during regional elections in Bihar. The attacks, mainly against police and soldiers, began the night before and were blamed on Naxalites (Deutsche Presse-Agentur 2/12/00)
Feb 12, 2000 Ten to fifteen Naxalites belonging to a breakaway group of the CPI-ML-ROC abducted two persons from a work site of the Penukonda- Puttaparthi railway line near Rampuram. Five policemen were hurt in the exchange of fire that followed. (The Hindu 2/15/00)
Feb 17, 2000 Police and Naxalites clashed at a voting booth in Islampur, wounding five people during the second round of Bihar elections. The Bihar government had issued "shoot on sight" orders for anyone attempting to disrupt the elections. (The Statesman [India] 2/17/00 & The Hindu 2/17/00)
Feb 18, 2000 About 30 PWG guerrillas stormed a police station and killed seven officials in a raid in Visakhapatnam district of Andhra Pradesh. The PWG’s organization's deputy chief was killed in the gunbattle. (Agence France Presse 2/19/00)
Feb 20, 2000 Twenty-two policemen were killed in a landmine blast triggered by People's War Group activists at Kukrajhor village in Madhya Pradesh. (The Statesman [India] 2/20/00)
Mar 22, 2000 A Constitution Bench of the Supreme Court by a majority of three to two ruled that Section 4 of the Bihar Reservation of Vacancies in Posts and Services (for Scheduled Castes, Scheduled Tribes and other Backward Classes) Act, 1991 is unconstitutional. The law sought to impose the scheme of "reservation" for direct recruitment to the posts in the judiciary of the State, subordinate to the High Court of Patna being the posts of District Judges (DJs) as well as the posts in the lower judiciary subordinate to District Courts (totally bypassing the High Court.) The majority judgment directed that the question of filling up of reserved posts in this case "will remain germane to the aforesaid extent of permissible reservation of 24 per cent for SC and ST candidates" and that "the concerned authorities will work out the rights of the selected candidates for being appointed to these posts governed by the Bihar Judicial Service (Recruitment) rules, 1955 accordingly, keeping in view the directions contained in the Apex Court interim order dated November 16, 1995." (The Hindu 3/23/00)
Apr 3, 2000 The Andhra Pradesh Assembly attempted to pass a resolution urging the Naxalites to surrender and open a dialogue with the government, but many of the legislators were too afraid to speak. The lone Marxist-Leninist member condemned first the PWG for violence, and then the government for resorting to "fake encounters." (The Statesman [India] 4/3/00)
Apr 9, 2000 Three PWG members were killed in an encounter with the police at Sarvayipalle village. A report from Nizamabad said another naxalite was killed in an alleged encounter with the police near Dasnapur village. (The Hindu 4/10/00)
Apr 10, 2000 The University Grants Commission withdrew its order to end the reservation for scheduled castes and scheduled tribes candidates in admission to M.Phil and Ph. D courses of universities and colleges. (The Hindu 4/11/00). An Armed Reserve (AR) police constable and a naxalite belonging to the Manthani dalam were killed after police broke up a "praja court" at Mallaram village. (The Hindu 4/11/00)
Apr 12, 2000 Two naxalites, including a woman belonging to the CPI-ML (Janashakthi), were killed in an encounter with the police in the forest near Dondapadu village in Vinukondal. (The Hindu 4/13/00)
Apr 17, 2000 Arrested Naxalites of the CPI-ML and members of the banned Ranvir Sena clashed in a jail in Jehanabad, central Bihar, leaving 60 prisoners injured. (The Statesman [India] 4/17/00)
Apr 17, 2000 Two Singareni Karmika Samakhya (Sikasa) leaders were killed in an exchange of fire with the police in Duganepalli village. In a separate incident, an organizer of the CPI-ML Janashakthi group was killed in an encounter with the police between the Lingampeta and Sanugula village outskirts. (The Hindu 4/18/00)
Apr 20, 2000 A self-styled commander of the CPI (ML Pratighatana) group was killed in an alleged encounter with the police of Adilabad district. In a separate incident, in Karimnagar, Andhra Pradesh, the CPI-ML Praja Prathigatana group naxalites shot dead a former naxalite at Battupalli village after branding him as police informer. (The Hindu 4/21/00)
Apr 26, 2000 Indian policemen shot dead at least six guerrillas of the Peoples' War Group (PWG) in an encounter in Andhra Pradesh’s Nalgonda district. Ten other outlawed left-wing guerrillas surrendered to the police elsewhere in the region. (Agence France Presse 4/26/00)
Apr 27, 2000 In Warangal, Andhra Pradesh, police shot dead 12 extremists in an eight-and-a-half hour encounter in the hill ranges. PWG members later alleged that over 100 policemen opened fire indiscriminately and hurled grenades. (The Hindu 4/28/00 & 4/30/00)
May 9, 2000 A newspaper reported the abysmal conviction rate for crimes against members of scheduled tribes or castes in Karnataka. There had not been a single conviction in Karnataka during the last three years regarding cases pertaining to atrocities against Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes. While 1,252 cases were reported under Prevention of Atrocities (PA) Act on Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes in 1997, their numbers went up to 1,279 in 1998 and 1,234 in 1999. Thus, of the 3,765 cases reported under the Act, 2,377 cases were pending trial and 765 cases were under investigation. 334 cases were found to be false while there were 17 acquittals, 12 in 1997 and five in 1998. Four persons were convicted in 1995, five were convicted in 1996, and none since. In subsequent years, there has not been any conviction. Bangalore City reported 91 atrocity cases in 1998 while Chitradurga and Gulbarga head the State in this with 180 cases each reported in 1998. (The Hindu 5/10/00)
May 17, 2000 The Ministry of Social Justice and Empowerment (SJE) urged the creation of a system to provide free legal aid to members of the Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes. The suggestion came in light of the "grossly inadequate legal facilities" provided at the time, according to the ministry, noting the huge number of pending cases in courts indicated the failure of the administrative and enforcement machinery in the implementation of both the Protection of Civil Rights Act, 1955, and the Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes (Prevention of Atrocities) Act, 1989. Several States, including Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu, Orissa and Uttar Pradesh had not even set up special courts to investigate crimes against Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes. According to officially available statistics, out of 5,726 cases which were pending in 1999 under the Protection of Civil Rights Act, only 355 cases were disposed of, leaving a backlog of 5,371 cases. The number of cases under the Prevention of Atrocities Act was 140,630 at the beginning of 1998. Of these, 1,639 ended in conviction, and 28,015 in acquittal, while 1,10,976 remained pending at the end of the year. (The Hindu 5/18/00)
May 22, 2000 In Bangalore, a State-level Vigilance Monitoring Committee was constituted under the SC/ST Prevention of Atrocities Act, 1999 to curb atrocities on Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes. At the same time, the Civil Rights Enforcement (CRE) Cell was redesignated the SC/ST Protection Cell, which would have greater means to deal with atrocities. Mobile courts would be set up to try cases of atrocities against SCs and STs. Nearly 4,000 cases of atrocities against dalits were pending in Bangalore courts. (The Hindu 5/23/00)
Jan 18, 2004 At least three Kuki tribals died after Kabri militants entered their village and fired indiscriminately. (Asian Centre for Human Rights. 2005. "Indian Human Rights Report 2005.")
Feb 12, 2004 Three members of the Kuki Revolutionary Army died in a clash with security forces. (SATP. "Kuki Revolutionary Army.", accessed 11/10/2008.)
Feb 13, 2004 Four Achik National Volunteer Council militants died in a shoot-out with security forces. (SATP. "Achik National Volunteer Council." accessed 11/10/2008.)
Feb 19, 2004 Adivasis occupied land to protest against the government's failure to provide 53,000 landless adivasis with land. (Asian Centre for Human Rights. 2005. "Indian Human Rights Report 2005.")
Mar 19, 2004 In the Kabri Anglong district, 10 Kuki houses were burned down and four villagers killed in fighting. (Asian Centre for Human Rights. 2005. "Indian Human Rights Report 2005.")
Mar 24, 2004 Kuki militants were suspected to be behind the killing of 28 Kabri civilians in a raid on their village. (Asian Centre for Human Rights. 2005. "Indian Human Rights Report 2005.")
Mar 27, 2004 At least three died after Kuki militants attacked three separate Kabri villages. (Asian Centre for Human Rights. 2005. "Indian Human Rights Report 2005.")
Mar 28 - 31, 2004 Hmar People's Convention-Democracy and the Zomi revolutionary Army clashed on two separate occassions, killing three. (South Asian Terrorism Portal. "Hmar People's Convention-Democracy." accessed 11/10/2008.)
May 3, 2004 Indian troops killed seven tribals belonging to the Kuki Revolutionary Army in a night raid on their hideout. (Agence France Presse, 5/4/2004, "Troops gun down seven tribal rebels in northeast India")
May 4, 2004 At least seven Kuki Revolutionary Army militants were killed in a clash with security forces. (SATP. "Kuki Revolutionary Army." accessed 11/10/2008.)
Jul 4 - 5, 2004 Forest officials and police attacked Korku tribals in Madhya Pradesh, destroying property and forcibly evicting them. They detained several at undisclosed locations. The following morning, forest officials allegedly took away 73 tribal men, women and children. (Asian Centre for Human Rights. 2005. "Indian Human Rights Report 2005.")
Jul 23, 2004 The tribal militant outfit, Achik National Volunteer Council, and the state and central governments signed a ceasefire agreement. (South Asia Terrorism Portal. 2001. "Achik National Volunteer Council." accessed 11/10/2008.)
Sep 16, 2004 Police arrested 18 adivasis in Orissa after they participated in a public rally. (Asian Centre for Human Rights. 2005. "Indian Human Rights Report 2005.")
Oct 24, 2004 Police killed Kuki National Front-P militant.(SATP. "Kuki National Front." accessed 11/10/2008.)
Oct 25, 2004 In a clash, police kill three Kuki National Front militants. (SATP. "Kuki National Front." accessed 11/10/2008.)
Nov 28, 2004 A gunfight erupts between Bru National Liberation Front and security forces in Tripura. One civilian died in the crossfire. (SATP. "Bru National Liberation Front." accessed 11/10/2008.)
Dec 1, 2004 A protest of 300 adivasi women was forcibly broken up when police charged with batons. (Asian Centre for Human Rights. 2005. "Indian Human Rights Report 2005.")
Jan 12, 2005 In a joint attack, United Kuki Liberation Front and Kuki Revolutionary Army militants killed the Kuki National Army head. (SATP. "Kuki National Army." accessed 11/10/2008.)
May 9, 2005 Police killed four tribals, including two children, as they were protesting against violations of their land rights. (Asian Centre for Human Rights. 2006. "Indian Human Rights Report 2006.")
May 14, 2005 Hundreds of tribals protested the rape of a teenage girl from the Kalho tribal community by upper caste men in Orissa. (Hindustan Times, 5/14/2005, "Orissa tribals take to the streeets overs teenager's rape")
Jun 1 - Jul 31, 2005 29 Karbi houses in Assam destroyed during eviction drive by forest officials. (Asian Centre for Human Rights. 2006. "Indian Human Rights Report 2006.")
Jun 8, 2005 Members of a timber mafia in Jharkhand attacked an Agaria tribal village after they protested mafia activity. They burned 140 huts, killing an infant. (Asian Centre for Human Rights. 2006. "Indian Human Rights Report 2006.")
Jun 21, 2005 After the destruction of tribal crops by District Forest officers, hundreds of tribals protested in New Dehli. (Hindustan Times, 6/21/2005, "Tribals stage demo against forest officials")
Aug 1, 2005 - Jan 31, 2006 Authorities along with eight Kuki and Zumi organizations agreed to a six-month ceasefire. (South Asia Terrorism Portal. 2001. "Zomi Revolutionary Army.", accessed 11/10/2008.)
Sep 19, 2005 Zomi Revolution Army and Zomi Revolutionary Front clashed, killing 7 militants. (SATP. "Zomi Revolutionary Army." accessed 11/10/2008.)
Sep 30, 2005 Police fired at tribals protesting against the transfer of a school board headquarters, killing nine. (Asian Centre for Human Rights. 2006. "Indian Human Rights Report 2006.")
Oct 1, 2005 After hundreds of Garo students protesting against the relocation of an education board began to throw stones, police responded by opening fire, killing 12. (Philp, Catherine, 10/1/2005, "Police kill 12 student protesters," The Times (London))
Oct 2005 A series of clashes and raids between Karbi and Dimasa tribal groups resulted in the displacement of 75,000 people. (International Displacement Monitoring Centre. 5/3/2007. "India: large numbers of IDPS are unassisted and in need of protection.")
Dec 8, 2005 Hundreds of tribals protested against a inadequate rights in the Tribal Rights Bill and the proposed opening of tribal areas to Multi-national coporations' operations. (Hindustan Times, 12/8/2005, "Tribals court arrest over rights bill")
Dec 15, 2005 The Kuki National Army and the Kuki National Front-P clashed, killing four. (SATP. "Kuki National Front." accessed 11/10/2008.)
Dec 21, 2005 Police killed the defense secretary of the Kuki National Front. (SATP. "Kuki National Front." accessed 11/10/2008.)
Jan 16, 2006 UNLF militants are suspected of gang raping 21 Hmar girls aged 13 to 17. (Asian Centre for Human Rights. 2007. "Indian Human Rights Report 2007.")
Jan 20, 2006 Railway police arrested 165 tribals on suspicion of being Maoist sympathizers. (Asian Centre for Human Rights. 2007. "Indian Human Rights Report 2007.")
Jul 24, 2006 Kuki National Front-President members attacked a security patrol in Manipur. (UPI, 7/24/2006, "Fire-Attacks-Government")
Aug 20, 2006 Zomi Revolutionary Army fired on a patrol of Assam Rifles, killing 2 civilians and injuring 4 others. (SATP. "Zomi Revolutionary Army." accessed 11/10/2008.)
Aug 22, 2006 Thousands of people (mostly tribals) demonstrated to demand the closure of an army firing range in Jharkhand. (Asian Centre for Human Rights. 2007. "Indian Human Rights Report 2007.")
Aug 23, 2006 In a gunfight with police, two Hynniewtrep National Liberation Council militants died. (SATP. "Hunniewtrep National Liberation Council." accessed 11/10/2008.)
Sep 10, 2006 Members of the Bhil tribal group attacked police officers attempting to prevent a mob from attacking a Meena village. A police officer died. (Hindustan Times, 9/11/2006, "Irate Bhils kill police officer in Guna dist")
Sep 11, 2006 A police officer and a Bhil youth died after police responded to a violent mob of Bhil tribals. The mob was avenging a rape. (Hindustan Times. 9/11/2006. "Irate Bhils kill police officer in Guna dist")
Sep 20, 2006 Police and Hunniewtrep National Liberation Council exchanged fire killing one. (SATP. "Hunniewtrep National Liberation Council." accessed 11/10/2008.)
Nov 12, 2006 One person died and others were injured when police opened fire on a mob of 800 people, mostly tribals, after they attacked a police station. (Hindustan Times, 11/14/2006, "Police fire after mob attack; one killed")
Nov 14, 2006 One person is killed and others injured when police open fire on a mob of 800 people, mostly tribals, after they attack a police station. (Hindustan Times, 11/14/2006, "Police fire after mob attack; one killed")
Nov 15, 2006 50,000 tribals protested against a government-sponsored anti-insurgency campaign in Chhattisgarh. (Hindustan Times, 11/15/2006, "Chhattisgarh tribals protest against anti-Maoist campaign")
Nov 26, 2006 Approximately 800 members of the Bru Liberation Front of Mizoram surrender before authorities, ending a nine-year insurgency. (IRNA, 10/26/2006, "800 Bru rebels surrender in India's northeast state")
Nov 29, 2006 Thousands of tribals also protest for recognition of forest rights. (Hindustan Times, 11/29/2006, "Tribal people protest for rights over forests")
Nov 30, 2006 The Kuki National Front (KNF) and the Kuki National Army clashed, killing a KNF leader. (SATP. "Kuki National Front." accessed 11/10/2008.)
Dec 4, 2006 Police and Kuki National Army exchanged fire. One civilian died in the crossfire. (SATP. "Kuki National Army." accessed 11/10/2008.)
Dec 9, 2006 Two dozen policemen are injured as a crowd of 2,000 tribals clashed with police while protesting a hydroelectric project. (Hindustan Times, 12/9/2006, "30 hurt in Himachal clash")
Nov 24 - 24, 2007 10,000 tribals from the Assam Tea Plantation protested for recognition as a distinct tribal group and be awarded the benefits. (Agence France Presse, 11/24/2007, "Seven dead, 130 hurt as Indian tribals demand job concessions" )


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Information current as of July 16, 2010